Developmental Notes Week 5
Developmental Notes Week 5 PSYC 3120
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 7- The Preschool Years: Physical and Cognitive Development 2/16/16 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage • Age 2-7 (not a concrete age range) • Symbolic function: the notion that a symbol can stand for something else o E.g., letters can stand for sounds, words can stand for objects, objects can represent things in the real world • Cognitive advances lead to language advances • Egocentrism: child sees the world form their point of view o Have a hard time seeing how others may see them o Can’t put themselves in someone else’s shoes o Example: if they get a gift they don’t like, they show it. When you’re older, however, you learn to pretend like you like the gift • Animistic thinking: the belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities (thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions) o Example: attribute human like qualities to stuffed animals/dolls for example; the stuffed animal needs a friend on the shelf with it so that it’s not lonely and scared Conservation (Figure 7-8 in text) • Perception bound: children have a hard time changing their perspective • Centration: limitation of the child’s thinking; they only focus on one aspect of a situation o Putting a cat mask on a doll and the child calls it a cat • States vs. transformations o They have trouble explaining steps that happen like in the picture shown at the right o The child only thinks about the first and last state of a pencil falling where as an adult can think about that middle state • Irreversibility: have a hard time reversing direction o “If I’m pouring out water, what would happen if I poured the water back in it’s container?” • Transductive reasoning: link two events that occur together and think that one causes the other o Example: bedtime is 8:00 and it’s dark when I go to bed. Because it’s dark when I go to bed, it gets dark because I go to bed • Liquid, number, length and mass • Area, weight, volume Piaget and Education • An emphasis on discovery learning • Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn • Acceptance of individual differences • Vygotsky (influenced by Piaget) o Piaget- children move through stages but Vygotsky believed that having social relationships/situations is how children learned best o Egocentric speech § Piaget thought it was not good- anytime a child was talking to themselves, it didn’t serve any purpose § Vygotsky believed that when people talked to themselves, it helps them work out a problem they’re having o Inner speech § What Vygotsky called egocentric speech o Private speech § What psychologists now call egocentric/inner speech Zone of Proximal Development (Figure 7-10 in text) • Level of Independent Performance: what can a child do by themselves (math problems, reading a book, etc.) • Level of Assisted Performance: what can a child do with help • ZPD = area between these two types of performance • Scaffolding • Cultural tools Vygotsky and Education • Assisted discovery: a teacher helping a student solve a problem • Peer collaboration: a teacher setting up a problem and having the whole class work on it Chapter 8- Child Abuse 2/18/16 U.S. Child Abuse is a “National Emergency” • 5 children are killed by their caretakers every day • 3 million children are abused or neglected annually in the US • Negative Sequella o Estimated annual cost of child abuse for 2008 was $124 billion o 1/3 to 2/3 of child maltreatment cases involve substance abuse o Abused children are 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile Types of Abuse • Physical Abuse: non-accidental injury to a child under the age of 18 by a parent or caretaker o May include beatings, shaking burns, human bites, strangulation, or immersion in scalding water, with resulting bruises and welts, broken bones, scars or internal injuries o Physical Indicators § Unexplained bruises and welts in unusual places § Several bruises or welts in different stages of healing, in usual shapes or clusters § Unexplained fractures/dislocations § Unexplained burns § Other unexplained injuries such as human bite marks, bald patches, retinal hemorrhage and abdominal injuries o Behavioral Indicators § Reports injury by parents § Gives unbelievable explanation for injuries § Feels deserving of punishment § Afraid to go home § Overly shy, tends to avoid physical contact § Displays emotional extremes • Sexual Abuse: exploitation of a child or adolescent for the sexual gratification of another person o Sexual comments, fondling, intercourse, child prostitution, and other forms of exploitation o Physical indicators § Somatic complaints à headache or stomach ache § Difficulty walking or sitting § Pain and irritation of the genitals § Sexually transmitted disease § Pregnancy in young adolescents § Frequent unexplained sore throats, yeast, or urinary infections o Behavioral indicators § Advanced sexual knowledge or behavior § Depression, suicidal gestures § Frequent psychosomatic complaints § Chronic running away § Drugs or alcohol abuse § Avoidance of undressing or wearing extra layers of clothes § Sudden avoidance of certain familiar adults § Decline in school performance • Neglect: chronic failure of a parent or caretaker to provide a child under 18 with basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, medical care, educational opportunity, protection and supervision o Most common form of child abuse (78%) o Physical indicators § Height and weight significantly below age level § Inappropriate clothing for weather § Poor hygiene, including lice, body odor, scaly skin § Has not received needed medical/dental care § Child abandoned or left with inadequate supervision § Untreated illness or injury § Lack of safe, warm, sanitary shelter o Behavioral indicators § Begging or stealing food § Falling asleep in school § Poor school attendance § Reports no caretaker in the home § Chronic hunger § Dull, apathetic appearance § Running away from home § Repeated acts of vandalism § Assumes adult responsibilities • Psychological Maltreatment o Psychological/Emotional Neglect: failure of caregivers to meet child’s need for affection, attention and emotional support o Psychological Abuse: chronic pattern of behaviors such as belittling, humiliating and ridiculing a child o Physical indicators § Eating disorders § Sleep disturbances § Wetting/soiling by school aged child § Speech disorders § Failure to thrive § Developmental lags § Asthma, sever allergies, ulcers o Behavioral indicators
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