Arch 218 Week 7 Notes
Arch 218 Week 7 Notes ARCH 218-02
Popular in History of World Architecture: Middle Ages-18th Century
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bobbi Ellias on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 218-02 at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo taught by Yip, Christopher L. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see History of World Architecture: Middle Ages-18th Century in Architecture at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Lecture 12: Native Americans Focus Questions: 1. What are the origins and elements of Aztec architecture, urbanism, and culture? 2. In what way did Inca architecture interpret the relationship between architectural form and nature? 3. What are the characteristics of the Anasazi Great Pueblo Period in the Southwestern USA? iClicker Questions: 1.Aztec Empire invented the use of the pyramidal form for religious structures in Mexo-America (true or false) Structures/Locations 1. Name: Chinampas Location: Tenochtitlan, Mexico Importance: Square layout of rectangles with canals in between to allow for navigation through the ﬁelds. Allows for agriculture in shallow lake beds 2. Name: Sacred Precinct Location:Aztec Empire. Tenochtitlan, Mexico. Importance: Dedicated to Huitzilopochtli (god of sun and war) and Tlaloc (rain god). had to sacriﬁce blood to gods. Sacriﬁcing location. 20,000 prisoners sacriﬁced at last enlargement of Great Teocalli (pyramid) in the city. 3. Name: Paracas Tapestry Culture:Andean Culture Importance: culture favored collectivity, reciprocity, primary essence (represent ideas of things rather than realistic look) over appearance. Dry desert land. No written language- use symbols and images to describe ideas. 4. Name: Chan Chan People- Chimer Kingdom Location: Peru Importance: Fascination with wealth. No urban plan or center in city layout. Elaborate calendar; gold, silver and copper working. no written language. mass production of ritual and decorative objects. craft specialization. clay for commoners, metal for elite. One of the last great coastal empires. Conquered by Inca. 5. Name: Inca Tribe Location: Coastal Peru Importance: conquered many other locations. Grew potatoes. Created road system (even longer than Roman road system) to connect huge empire together. Created a network of 20,000 miles of Roads (from Ecuador to Chile). HugeArmy= took over many other tribes before Spain came and overthrew them. Narrow roads because no wheels- no cars/ wagons. Just used for walking alpacas- terrain too mountainous for wheels. *Developed Quipus (knotted string system of accounting. No writing. Kept records about taxes. a. Capital of Inca Empire: Cuzco, Peru: Royal, religious and elite constructions were wedged into the blocks created by the symbolic shape. *Layout was an animal (cat) layout. Reality= spiritual world. Less focus on real world. b. Santo Domingo: (Sun Temple site) Location: Cuzco, Peru. Importance: Wall. Stones viewed anthropomorphically- seen as having their own power. geometric and organic structure. Deliberately chose not to ﬁt together perfectly. Show power of mother earth and nature. c. Sacsahuaman Location: Cuzco, Peru Importance: Gathering area and ritual center overlooking the city. Dedicated to thunder god. d. Machu Picchu Location: Peru Importance: Probably a ceremonial center hidden away at the end of Urubama River Valley. “Breadbasket for Cuzco”. Small. 200 rooms- house about 1000. Incredibly steep and hard to get to. Probably a “royal retreat” location. *Pirka- masonry used ﬁeld stones laid in mud mortar for common structures. Faster form of construction. 6. Southwestern USA Culture: Early Basket making Period- no pottery, lived in caves and cliff recesses. Modiﬁed basketmaking Period: pottery. pit houses with circular ﬁre pits and square roof; side entry with smoke and ladder. settlement spread to mesa tops and canyon bottoms. Developmental Pueblo Period: kivas (pit-houses) deep into ground. ladder hough smoke hole. living quarters moved above ground into rectangular rooms of adobe and saplings on stone foundations. Great Pueblo Period: Multi-leveled housing and storage complexes with sunken kivas. Masonry construction. Fighting between clans for limited farmland. Defensive settlement design (bc landscape is tough-have to ﬁght for farmland) a. Cliff palace: Location: Mesa Verde, Colorado, USA Importance: Loose aggregation of rectangular rooms for living and storage. Sensititvey to site and solar orientation. Circular kivas.