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Criminal Justice chapter 2 notes

by: Isabel Notetaker

Criminal Justice chapter 2 notes JUST 2004

Isabel Notetaker
GPA 3.82
Crime and Criminality
Abdullah Cihan

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About this Document

These notes cover classical criminology and the deterrence doctrine, modern deterrence theory, Rational choice theory, deterrence and criminal justice policy, and routine activities theory.
Crime and Criminality
Abdullah Cihan
Class Notes
classical criminology, Deterrence, Theory, rational choice, routine activities, policy.
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabel Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JUST 2004 at East Carolina University taught by Abdullah Cihan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Crime and Criminality in Journalism and Mass Communications at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
griminal Justice ghapter 2 Note Deterrence and Rational Theorie o Beliefs and practices relating to crime prior to classical criminology and the deterrence doctrine gt In the middle ages people believed in what was called spiritualism demonological spiritual reasoning explained crime and would determine if someone was guilty or innocence through practices such as trail be combal rcdrial b or 5an m W11 u i naryIF gt Things started to change in the late 18th and 19th centuries also known as quotThe Age Of Reasonquot At this time it was reasonable to believe that people s actions were made on their own choice 0 In the late 18th century came classical criminology which are the beliefs and ideas of Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham These included gt Beccaria s ideas on crime and punishment States should write laws of crime with regards to social contract These laws shouldn t be implemented as a means to impose moral values Decrease in torture replace with incarceration Lead to an increase in prisons The punishment of the offender should t the crime they committed Punishment should be just painful enough to offset the pleasure of the crime Suspects have the right of assumption of innocence innocent until proven guilty and the right to actions that give a swift trial and sentencing gt Bentham s ideas Believed that human nature was hedonistic based on what a person can gain and rational sensible People will probably make the same choice when presented with alike situations He proposed the famous state penitentiary in Pennsylvania called the quotPanopticonquot gt Both Beccaria and Bentham disagreed with the cruel and unusual punishment used before the 18th century 0 Deterrence theory people use hedonistic calculus to determine their actions Which means they calculate how much is to be gained vs how much is to be lost before they commit the crime gt With this in mind we can try and prevent crime The theory suggest that we should be able to prevent crime if 3 elements of punishment are used Severitypunishment is tough enough to deter the individual from committing the crime Certaintyindividual knows they will be punished if they commit the crime more effective then severhy Celerity punishment is enforced very swiftly o Deterrence of crime severity and certainty can be studied through macro and micro level testing gt Severity under macro testing look at different states macro in regard to capital punishment policies etc gt Severity under micro ask individuals micro how severely they thought they would be punished if caught gt Certainty under macro testinglook at different states macro in regard to arrest rates police size etc gt Certainty under micro testing ask individuals micro what they believed their chances were of getting caught 0 Other deterrence concepts gt General vs Speci c deterrence General deterrence looks at the whole society while speci c deterrence looks at individual offenders Speci c helps guide the creation of Cl policies gt Absolute vs Marginal deterrence Absolute deterrence looks at the unknown amount of crime that is deterred by the mere existence of the CJ system Marginal deterrence looks at the level of punishment for a serious crime vs a less serious crime serious crimetougher punishment Does criminal punishment deter crime Absolute deterrence Are people more afraid of being caught and punished by CJ system or more afraid of disappointing loved ones gt Formal vs Informal deterrence Formal deterrence looks at legal punishments such as prison Informal deterrence looks at extralegal punishments such as shame from your family gt The experiential effect The idea that people believe they have less of a chance of getting caught if they have more experience with the CJ system and vice versa better chance of getting caught if little experience with Cl system Does this go against the ideas of the deterrence theory Policies created in C system based off of deterrence gt Scared straight people visit prisons to get an idea of what it s like to scare them Till llL 39 r quotfquot 1 39 n n V I 39 WV gt 393 l 3 I 7 3 I I A W gt Shock incarceration a person spends a little bit of time incarcerated to scare them gt Boot camps physical labor to discipline gt Tough on crime gt All of these policies are not effective overall 0 Rational choice theory People use hedonistic calculus Their choices are rational and thought out gt Their backgrounds don t play a role in their decision making gt This helps us understand how decisions to commit crime are made gt TRDMthoughtfully re ective decision making o Routine activities theory RAT Theory of who becomes a victim not of who commits the crime gt Made up of 3 elements Cohen and Felon suggested that if these 3 elements came together crime would occur An available target A motivated offender Lack of guardians 0 Prevention methods for routine crimetarget hardening practices proposed by Felson and Clarke They include gt Laws established that instate juvenile curfews and required time for bars and liquor stores to close gt Informal supervision gt Signs warning of crime gt Alarms and surveillance Crime displacement the chance that crime will move from one place to another due to the implementation of situational crime prevention strategies


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