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Chapter 2 Brain Section

by: JoyContreras

Chapter 2 Brain Section Psychology 1301 (Skye Woestehoff)

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Introduction to Psychology
Skye Woestehoff

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Here are the notes about the brain and memory, I hope this helps you to understand the material of this section. <3
Introduction to Psychology
Skye Woestehoff
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by JoyContreras on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 1301 (Skye Woestehoff) at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Skye Woestehoff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 2 Brain Section The Neuron A neuron is a cell that transmits messages through electrical chemical Changes these are the basic building blocks of the nervous system NEUR I Dendritee quot Mien Terminals receivers Eel Hang in 39 39 transmitters Sehwenn39e Eelle thegrneke the mgelin Hede of Ranvier Axen lthe eentlueting quotHENquot SHEEN h fiber in ulating fettg lager that SDEEUS tr n mm mm EnehentedLeerningeem Neuron Structure Dendrites tree like structures that receive the messages and passes them to body cell in order for the cell to function Soma contains the nucleus and ER Endoplasmic reticulum o Axon It is a nerve ber that helps to pass electrical signals from cell body to terminal branch Neurotransmitter They transmit signals across a chemical synapse o Axon Hillock the connection point between the cell body and the axon o Axon terminal Allows the transmission of signal from one neuron to the next Neurons are not connected to one another signals must travel through a synapse is the space between two neurons What happens during the synapse is that a Neurotransmitter that is released from axon terminal of one neuron travels across the synapse and then it binds to receptor on the second neuron This is how neurons communicate Myelin Sheath covers the axon serves as an insulator in order to prevent signals from getting loss It also fastens the speed of signals Nodes of Ranvier Gaps between the myein sheath contributes to signal conduction Terminal Button these are located at the end of a neuron release a neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters 1 Excitatory make the neuron more likely to re cause depolarization 2 Inhibitory make the neuron less likely to fire Hyperpolarization 3 Reuptake the sending neuron reabsorbs the neurotransmitter molecules form the synapse Neurotransmitters can also be antagonist and agonist Antagonist doesn t allow any effect to occur lnhibitor blocks neurotransmitter and stops its action Antagonist mimics the neurotransmitter Neurons lnterneurons mediate between sensory inputs and motor inputs Afferent and Efferent Neurons Afferent Neuron Carry incoming sensory information to the brain and spinal cord Movement outside gt In Efferent Neuron Carry outgoing information messages to musclesglands and muscle contraction Movement lnside gt out Famfgmpmr Sign m ISell body all In slim ailment neuron A interneuroin 4quotquot of afferent neuron Biff Hot obj ant I 2 73 7 Mon of I efferent neuron Spinal cord cell incdr of Elle rent new rori Dendrite of afferent 39 39 Di realign of impulse Muscle onntracin and wiilhdraws part being slimulated FuncUon 1 Neurons use quot all or Nothingquot the idea that action potentials occur or they don t signals called action potentials to transmit information to and from the Central Nervous system Consist of the Brain and Spinal cord Action Potentials allow communication with other neurons they go for the axon when action potential reaches the axons terminal branches then to stimulate the release of neurotransmitters Can receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs Resting potential neurons stable negative charge when the cell is not sending any signals action potential begins An event has to be important enough for the action potential to happen Action Potential Steps 1 Threshold of excitation is exceeded the amount of stimulation needed to trigger an action potential 2 Depolarization sodium ions rush into the cell making it more positively charged 3 Repolarization Potassium ions leave the cell Process by which cell becomes much more negative 4 Too much potassium leaves causing Hyperpolarizationthe membrane becomes more negative than the resting potential Causing refractory period and another action potential can begin Parts Of the Brain The brain is divided into 3 areas FOREBRAIN MIDBRAIN and HINDBRAIN 1 Forebrain is the most recently evolved portion of the brain 2 Midbrain is the relaying point between the forebrain and the hindbrain It sends sensory and visual information to the forebrain and motor instructions to the hindbrain 3 Hindbrain is responsible for involuntary actions has cerebellumprocess sensory information coordinates movements and balance ponds involved with sleep arousal and coordinate movements and medulla Unconscious actions breathing hearth beating etc Cerebral cortex is the gray matter of the brain Left hemisphere l Right hemisphere and provides different right nonverbal task llllidlbiraiin logical and Each hemisphere sets of functions The Hemisphere controls and left controls analytical The corpus connects the two allowing them to Contra lateralization means a the brain controls left and left side caosum hemispheres communicate that right side of controls right obes of the brain FIHUNTAL LUBE 39 DcollplTAll LDEIE TEMPGIHAL LoaiE 1Fronta Lobe is responsible for planning decision making personality memory language Motor cortex is what controls movement and precise control 2 Parietal Lobe monitors body s position in space It integrates sensory information among various modalities Processes information in the sense of touch 3 Occipital lobe is responsible for processing visual information damaging this lobe of the brain will cause loss of vision and create hallucinations 4 Temporal lobe is responsible for hearing and speech it holds the primary auditory cortex When this lobe Limbic System The limbic system regulates memory it is composed of nerves and networks in the brain and controls basic emotions It is composed of the thalamus hypothalamus and hippocampus Thalamus sends sensory information to the higher brain except for smell Hypothalamus regulates functions like temperature sleeping and eating Oversees endocrine composed of glands and autonomic system regulates key voluntary functions of the body Hippocampus is involved with memory forming organizing and storing information 1 Memory There are different types of memory Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval 2 Three stage Model Three stage model consists of sensory memory short term memory and Long term memory Sensory memory is a brief recording of sensory information it includes iconic and echoic memory Echoic is auditory informationsounds and iconic is visual information images Short term memory is a mental representation it only holds a few items for a few seconds and then you will forget about them within a few minutes Long term memory is when you encode information and you will never forget this there is no limit to encode information Ways to improve memory Rehearsal 1 Levels of processing shalow processing is what the word sounds like Shallow processing will not help you improve your memory some examples are highlighting copying word for word from books or typing your notes on a computer during a lecture It is a lazy way to process information you are just not thinking about it 2 Deep Processing Fully analyzing information in terms of meaning and importance you encode it Improving Memory One of the most effective ways to improve your memory is when you use the method of loci The method of loci is a mnemonic device adopted in ancient Roman and Greek treaties You rst visualize a place you know well then imagine the items around that place Other ways to improve your memory is by chunking mnemonics hierarchies putting things into your own words practice the material over time test yourself and spacing effect is when you arrange the material into sections and well distributed Self Reference effect is when you remember information because it is meaningful to you it is easier to learn information Why do we forget 1 We forget because we don t encode or store information This is because we are not paying attention and that causes us to not encode and then store the information around us Change of blindness think about things in order to encode them Preventing Encoding Failure First of all you should pay attention then think about the information that is being given to you repeat it and then maybe write about it 2 Storage failure is when information decays after encoding To prevent this reviewing the material should work 3 Retrieval failure Proactive Interference old information will disrupt new information Retroactive Interference new will mess up with new information More ways to improve memory 1 ContextDepending Memory recall is better is tested in the same content 2 State Depending Memory recall is best when the state is similar at encoding and retrieval Types of Long Term Memory 1 ExplicitDeclarative Memory things that we know such as facts and knowledgeSemantic Memory Episodic memory personal events that occurred to you 2 lmplicitnondeclarative Memory without conscious recall Procedural memory is knowing how to do things you can do a task but you really can t explain how you did it Walking is an example and so is playing an instrument


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