Psychology Week 6 Notes
Psychology Week 6 Notes PSY 2301
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneeqa Akhtar on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Noah Sasson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Aneeqa Akhtar th th February 15 & 17 , 2016 Chapter 7: Principles of Behaviorism and Learning Learning: relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience 4 types of learning: o They all operate under the same principle: learning by association o 1) Habituation o 2) Classical conditioning o 3) Operant conditioning o 4) Observational learning Habituation: tendency to become familiar with a stimulus merely as a result of repeated exposure Acclimating to a stimulus; allows us to selectively attend to more consequential, novel stimuli Primitive form of learning, found in all organisms Present early in life -> even 30 week old fetuses habituate o Habituation is used to infer infant understanding Phase 1: show the baby a picture for extended period of time until the baby habituates Phase 2: show them a slightly different picture o they think they’ve already seen it -> habituation o they focus on it more -> dishabituation Indicates recognition but not recall memory Predictive of cognitive ability (how many times they had to be exposed to the picture in order to recognize it) Dishabituation: an increase in responsiveness to novelty Classical Conditioning: (or Pavlovian Conditioning), we learn to associate two stimuli that occur together; detect patterns Ex: why does a baby cry at the doctor? Babies have an association between the doctor’s office and pain (shots) These are learned associations Two related events: Stimulus 1 -> lightning, Stimulus 2 -> thunder o Results: Stimulus -> we see lightning, Response -> we wince anticipating thunder Operant Conditioning: rewards and punishments Rewards increase the frequency of a behavior and punishment decreases it Response: pushing the vending machine button, Consequence: receiving a candy bar Observational Learning: learning by observing and imitating others Modeling: process of observing and imitating behavior How kids imitate their parents th Behaviorism: a dominant field of psychology during much of the 20 century Psychology must be objective to be a science Only behavior is observable Everything else is an unknown black box o Psychologists should only study what’s observable Every behavior has causes that can be understood by scientific methods Power of the environment to mold and shape behavior Learning is a process of associating behavior with consequences Aneeqa Akhtar February 15 & 17 , 2016 Pavlovian Conditioning Ivan Pavlov: 1849-1936 o Russian physician/neurophysiologist o Studied digestive secretions o Discovered: dogs started salivating even with the absence of food -> they would hear the bell that sounds before they would receive their food o Organism comes to associate two stimuli: Tone and food Lightning and thunder o Begins with a natural reflex (salivating) o A neutral stimulus (bell) is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex (food) The neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex Classical Conditioning: associating a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus Psychologists simultaneously par: o An unconditional stimulus (natural stimulus) : that produces a predictable unconditioned response o With a conditioned stimulus (once-neutral stimulus) producing the same response, called a conditioned response after several repetitions Realistic example: getting dental work done (unconditioned stimulus) -> hurts/pain (unconditioned response) Eventually, the sound of the dentist’s drill (conditioned stimulus) -> causes anxiety/fear/pain (conditioned response) Second-order conditioning the conditioned response extends to related stimuli (the dentist’s office) o Ex: taste aversion, baby’s swaddle Generalizations/Discrimination You may either generalize: respond the same to all drill sounds Or discriminate: if you learn to respond only to dental drill sounds Extinction: if the conditioned stimulus is NOT followed by the same unconditioned stimulus, it will result in extinction and the conditioned response will disappear Different from forgetting -> can be spontaneous recovery Operant Conditioning: learning from consequences of behavior Law of Effect: Thorndike’s principle that rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur The behavior is either reinforced (increases) or punished (decreases) B. F. Skinner: elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect; developed behavioral technology o Operant Chamber: (“Skinner Box”), soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce. Contains a device to record responses Reinforcement: stimulus or event that increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated Ex: to get a dog to shake hands, you must give it a treat (reinforcement) every time it raises its paw Primary Reinforcer: stimulus that satisfies a biological or social need (food, attention) Secondary Reinforcer: stimulus like money that gives a reward by being linked with a primary reinforcer (food) Be careful: reinforcers can reduce intrinsic motivation and pleasure! Aneeqa Akhtar February 15 & 17 , 2016 Reinforcement Schedules Continuous: learning occurs rapidly o Subject to rapid extinction when discontinues Partial o Fixed-ratio: reinforcement after a fixed number of responses (paid after every 10 garments made) o Variable-ratio: reinforcement after varying number of responses (paying a slot machine, video games) o Fixed-interval: reinforcement of first response after a fixed amount of time (biweekly paycheck) o Variable-interval: reinforcement of first response after varying amounts of time (a fox hunting for prey) o Variable reinforcers are more resistant to extinction than fixed reinforcers Shaping: a process of achieving a desired behavior by rewarding behaviors (positive reinforcement) until the desired behavior is reached. Ex: to get a dog to lie down and roll over, you must reward each act until the desired trick is learned. Negative Reinforcement: a behavior increased by removing or preventing a painful stimulus. Ex: taking an aspirin to remove a headache – the headache is a negative reinforcer to taking aspirin (aspirin-taking increases) Ex: you remember to take out the trash every night so your spouse doesn’t nag you about it Punishment: an unpleasant consequence decreases the frequency of the behavior that produced it. Ex: yelling “NO!” every time a child gets close to the fire can stop the unsafe behavior Can produce unwanted side effects: rage, aggression, fear “Positive” vs “Negative” Punishment Positive Punishment: adding a negative consequence of an undesired behavior decreases that behavior later o Ex: cell phone rings in class and others roll eyes Negative Punishment: removing something desired as a consequence of an undesired behavior o Ex: siblings fighting over a toy, parent takes it away Social and Cognitive Learning Not all learning comes from just classical and operant conditioning Social Learning: altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others o Bobo Doll Study: Two groups of children were exposed to two different scenarios. The first group saw an adult being very aggressive with a doll, and the second group saw an adults being very gentle with the doll. Each group of children imitated the scenario they were exposed to. o Behavior Modification: systematic application of learning principles to change people’s actions and feelings Ex: use classical conditioning to overcome phobias o Extinction via exposure (flying) Ex: operant conditioning using token economies by reinforcing desired behaviors by giving “tokens” that can be exchanged for rewards later Aneeqa Akhtar th th February 15 & 17 , 2016 Cognitive Learning: altering behavior by mental processes o Latent Learning: learning or remembering details without intending to (seeing the same things on a regular driving route) o Learned Helplessness: repeated attempts to control a situation fail, you feel helpless Cannot change a situation, cannot escape punishment – often leads to depression Ex: a mouse repeatedly getting shocked, with no escape out of the cage, eventually goes limp and just endures the punishment What affects motivation to learn? Challenges provide opportunities to learn, but many people shy away from challenges There’s no such thing as an unmotivated baby. We all seem driven to learn, to master. Mastery is fun. So why are some people more motivated to learn new things while others avoid challenges? Cognitive research has shown that extrinsic rewards (money) don’t work. Behavior drops before a baseline once payment ceases. We do it because it’s easy and effective in the short- term. Carol Dweck’s Work How do children respond when faces with a learning challenge? Why do some persist while some quickly give up? Persistence in the face of a challenge is independent from intelligence o 5 grade girls with higher IQs are actually less likely to take a challenge than others Intelligence as a gift/talent versus as an earned ability Ways to think of intelligence: Entity (fixed) versus incremental (growth) o Entity: intelligence is static, you are either smart enough or not o Incremental: intelligence is malleable and can be developed o These mindsets are often without awareness o They develop, can change, and are sensitive to environmental feedback Entity View of intelligence Failure is a sign of not being smart enough If confident in abilities, will seek opportunities to demonstrate it If not confident, will avoid situations with potential negative results, thus tending to avoid challenges and minimize intellectual risks Seek out safe, low-effort successes in order to achieve performance goals (good grades or praise) Will only try something new if they are confident of appearing instantly competent Emphasis on appearing smart ( a performance, not learning, goal) Motivated to excel over others Highly vulnerable to minor setback Defensive, self-handicapping Incremental View of Intelligence Failure is a sign that one needs to improve Improvement through effort, intelligence can grow. The brain is like a muscle. Exercise it to get better. Goal is to simply to looks smart, but be smart Aneeqa Akhtar th th February 15 & 17 , 2016 o A learning, not performance, goal Sticking with tasks until reaching mastery, even at the risk of failure Persistence/resilience Focus on using knowledge not just demonstrating it Entity vs Incremental Mindsets Sensitive to feedback. Types of praise influences these conception o Praising intelligence (“you’re so smart!”) vs praising effort (“wow you worked hard to figure that out!”) o Both seem like positive reinforcement, but can have opposite effects o The first elicits an entity mindset, the second an incremental one Role of confidence What appears to be important is not so much the confidence you bring to the situation, as the ability to maintain confidence in the face of obstacles. Students’ confidence in their intelligence is a good predictor of their academic performance when they are not facing difficulties In difficult transitions or situations with chance of failure, confidence loses its power to predict Promoting “self-esteem” may be counterproductive when face with a challenge
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