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Microbiology 2nd Week of Notes with pictures

by: Kelsey Shillinglaw

Microbiology 2nd Week of Notes with pictures bio 225

Marketplace > Tri-County Technical College > Biology > bio 225 > Microbiology 2nd Week of Notes with pictures
Kelsey Shillinglaw

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About this Document

These notes discuss diffusion, counting cellular growth, extremophiles, cellular requirements, and optimum living conditions.
Spencer Heringa
Class Notes
Osmosis, Diffusion, concentration gradient, biofilms, pure culture, extremophiles, microscopic count
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Shillinglaw on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 225 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Spencer Heringa in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Tri-County Technical College.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
The cell membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer made up of numerous phospholipids, each one being comprised of a hydrophilic (water loving) head and a hydrophobic (water hating) 2-pronged tail. Simple diffusion is going from a higher concentration gradient to a lower concentration gradient until equilibrium is achieved. Facilitated diffusion is similar to simple diffusion, but with the help of proteins. Osmosis = energy free movement of water towards a higher concentration (if a membrane is present) Active transport is going from a lower concentration to a higher concentration Bacteria are ubiquitous (everywhere at once) When growing bacteria, each species has its own optimum requirements; o Lighting is required by some and unwanted by others o Food/ nutrient amounts and preferences vary depending on type o Optimum temperatures can also differ drastically o pH levels are crucial o Oxygen intake in a major growth factor o Water availability plays a major role as well Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission with the cell usually only having 1 chromosome. They have an exponential growth rate because their numbers double with each division, but generation times vary depending on their living conditions and how fast available nutrients are consumed. Growth can be calculated: N = N x 2 t O n N t Number of cells predicted N O Original number of cells in a population n = number of divisions (rarely “given” in an equation Biofilm- collection of organisms of different species; typically symbiotic in nature - Can be helpful for things such as waste treatment, but usually NOT good Pure Culture- one type of organism present Metabolite- bacterial by-product of their metabolism Extremophiles= mostly archaea {-phile ~ -philic} Psychrophile- found in Arctic & Antarctic regions Psychrotroph- refrigerator temperatures to a bit warmer than room temperature Mesophile- 37 oC /body temperature (pathogens) Thermophile- common in hot springs Hyperthermophile- almost boiling point; found in hydrothermal vents; usually members of archaea DNA Polymerase makes new DNA molecules and helps in the process of determining genetic diseases *Proteins of thermophiles resist denaturing -Antioxidants counter-act oxidation in the body Superoxides- by-product of cellular respiration (very harmful) Obligate Aerobe – require oxygen Obligate Anaerobe – require no oxygen Facultative Aerobe – can grow using oxygen (works best) or fermentation Microaerophile- needs limited quantities of (reduced) oxygen Aerotolerant- can grow anywhere pH Most microbes are neutrophils (optimum pH = 7) Acidophiles – pH below 5.5 Alkaliphiles – pH above 8.5 Water Availability Halophile – (salt lover) requires high salt concentration Halotolerant – Can tolerate up to 10% salt concentration Nutrients Carbon – gained from organic molecules (heterotrophs), CO 2 (autotrophs)~needed for organics Nitrogen – (needed for DNA, phospholipids) from organic molecules, nitrogen fixation (prokaryotes), NH3 Phosphates – inorganic phosphates (P), organic molecules i Energy – sunlight (photoautotrophs), organic molecules (chemoheterotroph) Sulfur – needed for protein creation Trace Elements/ Minerals – cofactors (vitamins) / coenzymes (minerals) Growth Media Liquid – broth Complex – quantities of ingredients and ingredients themselves aren’t known Solid – agur (doesn’t liquefy until boiling point) Defined – quantities of ingredients and ingredients themselves are known Differential – contains substances that microbes change in an identifiable way (color change) Selective – Inhibits growth of certain species Can have both differential and Enrichment Cultures – used to isolate an organism that constitutes small fraction of mixed population selective on the same plate! Measure Amounts Direct: -Microscopic Count (microscopic grid count)= one can’t tell if the cells being counted are living or dead -Flow Cytometry (laser counted)= dead cells register just like living cells -Quantitative Plate Count= counting colonies through a dilution series Indirect: -Turbidity= uses a broth’s “cloudiness”; it only works for certain concentrations because it requires a minimum amount of foggy solution -Dry Mass= using a dry culture and dry weight


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