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HIST 150 Week 4 Notes 2/8-2/12

by: Whitney Kendall

HIST 150 Week 4 Notes 2/8-2/12 Hist 150-002

Marketplace > Colorado State University > History > Hist 150-002 > HIST 150 Week 4 Notes 2 8 2 12
Whitney Kendall

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About this Document

Notes covering Pilgrims in Plymouth up to Royal African Company
U.S. History to 1876
Tracy L Brady
Class Notes
hist, history, Brady, pilgrims, slaves
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Kendall on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 150-002 at Colorado State University taught by Tracy L Brady in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1876 in History at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
2/8/16 Pilgrims at Plymouth  First puritans to emigrate- a group of separatists called pilgrims  First had gone to Netherlands, in fear of culture corruption for their children they emigrated to Virginia  Mayflower 1620- 150 passengers; both puritans and non-puritans  Landed in Cape cod and established Plymouth o Abandoned Indian village destroyed by smallpox  Made the Mayflower Compact- men agreed to obey “just and equal laws” by representatives- first written frame of Government in the US  ½ died in the first winter, the rest survived with help from Indians. In fall of 1621, they invited the Indians to a harvest feast celebrating their survival: The first Thanksgiving The Great Migration  1629- Massachusetts Bay Company (MBC) was founded by London merchants looking to help Puritans and turn a profit from Indian trade  1 5 ships sailed in 1629, by 1642 21000 puritans had emigrated to MA th  1/4 of population were servants  Older and more prosperous than Virginia, had a better ratio and climate, population doubled every 27 years Puritan Family  Male authority and adherence to the common-law tradition: limited married women’s legal and economic rights  Needed male authority to control labor of slaves and servants- farming society  Women were spiritual equals- could become full church members  Unmarried adults: looked at as a danger to the social fabric; family makes strong communities  Women married at 22 and gave birth 7 times Government and Society in Massachusetts  Self-governing towns, Groups of settlers received a land grant, set land for homes and for farming. Each town had a Congregational Church. Required to establish a school- needed to be able to read the bible  Harvard College established in 1636, 2 years later 1st printing press established in Cambridge  The 8 shareholders of the MBC emigrated to prevent outside non-puritan influences; turned the charter into a formal government  1634- group of deputies elected by freeman formed a single ruling body, the General Court  Only place to have elections Puritan Liberties  Hierarchy o Ordinary settlers: Goodman and goodwife o Better sort: gentlemen and lady/ master and mistress  Inequality was an expression of god’s will  First slaves appeared 1640  Separation of church and state officials but they kept a close connection  Death penalty for worshipping any other god, witchcraft, or blasphemy Divided England  People were punished for violating communal norms  Abigail Gifford- “burdensome woman”  Roger Williams: o Arrived in MA in 1631, a minister who was the first to criticize puritanism o Rejected that puritans were elect people on a divine mission to spread faith. Denied that God picked favorites o Williams banished in 1636, moved south with his followers and established Rhode Island- was a beacon for religious freedom  Dissenters: protestants who belonged to denominations other than the established church  Thomas Hooker o Established a settlement in Hartford- no church and state involvement o New Haven was the opposite, established by emigrants o In 1662, they received a royal charter, uniting them as Connecticut Trials of Anne Hutchinson  Spoke out against puritanism to the leaders of the colony  Said they weren’t true puritans, they were doing it for themselves not god  Was kicked out of MA, went to Rhode Island 2/10/16 Early Carolinas  1663- King Charles II- Charles the first was executed by puritan parliament  Charleston founded in 1670 in South Carolina  Men came from Barbados o Raised rice with African slaves o Brought an already established slavery system o Slaves eventually will form a majority there Women in Colonial Society  Women were subordinate to men  Very oppressed by patriotically society but could exercise some power o The Informal Public: collection of social rules, customs, attitudes (norms) that help regulate social actions o Midwives: Martha Ballard- took a log of what went on and events- survived to today  Important to deliver babies, relied on herbal remedies, stitch wounds, set broken bones- People respected them from caring for them  Best paying occupation for women o If midwife interrogates mother during birth, then she would be incapable of lying about who the dad was. Martha didn’t do that, thought it was wrong  Would lie sometimes that the mother said who it was when she didn’t  Midwifes word would carry into the courts o Midwives would be there for rape victims so they could be more comfortable talking about it. Would give them physicals to build a testimony  Sexual Identity  Thomasine- born in England, raised as a girl and learned everything o At puberty, she starts to develop man parts in puberty o She becomes Thomas and joins the English army o Served in war, then comes back to England and becomes Thomasine again o Thomasine decides to go to Virginia as an Indentured servant and goes as Thomas o Once there, starts to dress as a women again and doing women things- most comfortable for her o Her owner was confused o Calls up a group of midwives to give Thomasine a physical to find out what she is o They say she is a man, but another person says no she looks like a women and dresses like one o Ruled she is a women in courts, midwives mad, so midwives looked during her sleep, determine she is a man again o Goes to highest court in Virginia because midwives protested o They say she is both male and female- rule Thomasine should dress as a man, but could wear an apron and have feminine hair  Determining gender o Men: based it on how they act and dress o Women: physical components- sex organs  Deputy Husbands: Women who temporarily would assume power to take over a household while her husband was gone o Had same rights as a man had, could run business, buy property… o Often called “High Status Widows” o If husband dies, women can continue to be a Deputy Husband as long as they don’t remarry  Ex: Margaret Bent, father had lots of land, wife had passed on, when he died Margaret took over 2/12/16 African Slavery  Captured Muslims, Africans, even eastern Europe such as Slavs  If it was Christians enslaved, it was frowned upon by the church, but they didn’t care if it was other non-Christians  Portuguese- first to be involved in seafaring, sailing, and slavery o Built Holdings along African coasts o Fortress of Elmina- 1400s  Used for trading  Got slaves from kidnapping at Elmina o Realize this isn’t a good tactic, then have Africans capture people for them to trade as slaves o Grew Sugar Caine on Madeira- used slaves, their lives didn’t matter because sugar was so valuable. Would work them to death o Starts production of sugar  Spanish have sugar plantations along Caribbean- would use natives for labor  Bartolome de las Casas o Spanish priest, a champion for the native Americans- says they are treating them wrong o Instead of using natives we should use African slaves- sees before he dies that it is just as brutal but it is already an established institution o Sugar processing mills started to be used- speeds up production, need more slaves West Africans  African Slave trade  Agriculturally based- sophisticated farming o Cultivated millet, sorcum, rice, root vegetables  Large populations, networks of commerce, and lots of trade- Timbuctoo  Gold mining, made lots of tools to measure gold dust  Household slavery who were more like servants- incorporated into the family  15 century-1807 African slave trade in the Americas  Largest forced migration in history o 10-12 million Africans were forcibly taken and shipped into slavery o 2:1 men to women slaves o 15-30 years old, most popular or desired age o Slavery was included in the new England area  Shock of enslavement o Europeans got 2x as much as African slave traders o Set up raids to go capture slaves o Would kill, torture, and capture slaves, separate them and put them in pins to eventually sell to merchants  Panyaring: kidnapping by grabbing people and taking them onto a ship to sell o Kids would pretend/ play panyaring  Venture Smith- a slave captured at 8 years old, described how he was captured o Slaves were separated from people they knew o Sometimes branded them if in large quantities  Middle Passage- Africa to America; 3-4 month journey o Slaves packed into the ship o Tight pack method: people chained together, laid side by side, not much room, many died, fed very minimally, went to the bathroom were they were, lots of disease o Loose pack method: shelves of people, little bit more space, more of them survived and were in better condition when they arrived o Trouble makers put in restraints, sometimes threw them overboard o Sellers tried to convince buyers their slaves were good and healthy  Used hemp butt plugs to stop bloody diarrhea  “The Scramble” o Auction for slaves o Buyers form a ring around the slaves, they run and grab the ones they want.  John Caster o Slave, says, “My master has kept me past my 7 year servitude” o Master: Anthony Johnson o Claims he’s his slave for life, Courts side with Anthony o Anthony was an indentured slave and had been given land when his term was up and so he hired John as an indentured slave  People getting healthier, living longer  Wealthy planters don’t want to share power  Indentured servants are harder to find, they want some say o Cheaper and lived as long as slaves, but slaves were forever Royal African Company  Ships slaves directly  Laws change o Slaves are now born into slavery o Before being baptized meant freedom, now it doesn’t o Allowed to violently punish slaves


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