HIST 150 Week 4 Notes 2/8-2/12
HIST 150 Week 4 Notes 2/8-2/12 Hist 150-002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Kendall on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 150-002 at Colorado State University taught by Tracy L Brady in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1876 in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
2/8/16 Pilgrims at Plymouth First puritans to emigrate- a group of separatists called pilgrims First had gone to Netherlands, in fear of culture corruption for their children they emigrated to Virginia Mayflower 1620- 150 passengers; both puritans and non-puritans Landed in Cape cod and established Plymouth o Abandoned Indian village destroyed by smallpox Made the Mayflower Compact- men agreed to obey “just and equal laws” by representatives- first written frame of Government in the US ½ died in the first winter, the rest survived with help from Indians. In fall of 1621, they invited the Indians to a harvest feast celebrating their survival: The first Thanksgiving The Great Migration 1629- Massachusetts Bay Company (MBC) was founded by London merchants looking to help Puritans and turn a profit from Indian trade 1 5 ships sailed in 1629, by 1642 21000 puritans had emigrated to MA th 1/4 of population were servants Older and more prosperous than Virginia, had a better ratio and climate, population doubled every 27 years Puritan Family Male authority and adherence to the common-law tradition: limited married women’s legal and economic rights Needed male authority to control labor of slaves and servants- farming society Women were spiritual equals- could become full church members Unmarried adults: looked at as a danger to the social fabric; family makes strong communities Women married at 22 and gave birth 7 times Government and Society in Massachusetts Self-governing towns, Groups of settlers received a land grant, set land for homes and for farming. Each town had a Congregational Church. Required to establish a school- needed to be able to read the bible Harvard College established in 1636, 2 years later 1st printing press established in Cambridge The 8 shareholders of the MBC emigrated to prevent outside non-puritan influences; turned the charter into a formal government 1634- group of deputies elected by freeman formed a single ruling body, the General Court Only place to have elections Puritan Liberties Hierarchy o Ordinary settlers: Goodman and goodwife o Better sort: gentlemen and lady/ master and mistress Inequality was an expression of god’s will First slaves appeared 1640 Separation of church and state officials but they kept a close connection Death penalty for worshipping any other god, witchcraft, or blasphemy Divided England People were punished for violating communal norms Abigail Gifford- “burdensome woman” Roger Williams: o Arrived in MA in 1631, a minister who was the first to criticize puritanism o Rejected that puritans were elect people on a divine mission to spread faith. Denied that God picked favorites o Williams banished in 1636, moved south with his followers and established Rhode Island- was a beacon for religious freedom Dissenters: protestants who belonged to denominations other than the established church Thomas Hooker o Established a settlement in Hartford- no church and state involvement o New Haven was the opposite, established by emigrants o In 1662, they received a royal charter, uniting them as Connecticut Trials of Anne Hutchinson Spoke out against puritanism to the leaders of the colony Said they weren’t true puritans, they were doing it for themselves not god Was kicked out of MA, went to Rhode Island 2/10/16 Early Carolinas 1663- King Charles II- Charles the first was executed by puritan parliament Charleston founded in 1670 in South Carolina Men came from Barbados o Raised rice with African slaves o Brought an already established slavery system o Slaves eventually will form a majority there Women in Colonial Society Women were subordinate to men Very oppressed by patriotically society but could exercise some power o The Informal Public: collection of social rules, customs, attitudes (norms) that help regulate social actions o Midwives: Martha Ballard- took a log of what went on and events- survived to today Important to deliver babies, relied on herbal remedies, stitch wounds, set broken bones- People respected them from caring for them Best paying occupation for women o If midwife interrogates mother during birth, then she would be incapable of lying about who the dad was. Martha didn’t do that, thought it was wrong Would lie sometimes that the mother said who it was when she didn’t Midwifes word would carry into the courts o Midwives would be there for rape victims so they could be more comfortable talking about it. Would give them physicals to build a testimony Sexual Identity Thomasine- born in England, raised as a girl and learned everything o At puberty, she starts to develop man parts in puberty o She becomes Thomas and joins the English army o Served in war, then comes back to England and becomes Thomasine again o Thomasine decides to go to Virginia as an Indentured servant and goes as Thomas o Once there, starts to dress as a women again and doing women things- most comfortable for her o Her owner was confused o Calls up a group of midwives to give Thomasine a physical to find out what she is o They say she is a man, but another person says no she looks like a women and dresses like one o Ruled she is a women in courts, midwives mad, so midwives looked during her sleep, determine she is a man again o Goes to highest court in Virginia because midwives protested o They say she is both male and female- rule Thomasine should dress as a man, but could wear an apron and have feminine hair Determining gender o Men: based it on how they act and dress o Women: physical components- sex organs Deputy Husbands: Women who temporarily would assume power to take over a household while her husband was gone o Had same rights as a man had, could run business, buy property… o Often called “High Status Widows” o If husband dies, women can continue to be a Deputy Husband as long as they don’t remarry Ex: Margaret Bent, father had lots of land, wife had passed on, when he died Margaret took over 2/12/16 African Slavery Captured Muslims, Africans, even eastern Europe such as Slavs If it was Christians enslaved, it was frowned upon by the church, but they didn’t care if it was other non-Christians Portuguese- first to be involved in seafaring, sailing, and slavery o Built Holdings along African coasts o Fortress of Elmina- 1400s Used for trading Got slaves from kidnapping at Elmina o Realize this isn’t a good tactic, then have Africans capture people for them to trade as slaves o Grew Sugar Caine on Madeira- used slaves, their lives didn’t matter because sugar was so valuable. Would work them to death o Starts production of sugar Spanish have sugar plantations along Caribbean- would use natives for labor Bartolome de las Casas o Spanish priest, a champion for the native Americans- says they are treating them wrong o Instead of using natives we should use African slaves- sees before he dies that it is just as brutal but it is already an established institution o Sugar processing mills started to be used- speeds up production, need more slaves West Africans African Slave trade Agriculturally based- sophisticated farming o Cultivated millet, sorcum, rice, root vegetables Large populations, networks of commerce, and lots of trade- Timbuctoo Gold mining, made lots of tools to measure gold dust Household slavery who were more like servants- incorporated into the family 15 century-1807 African slave trade in the Americas Largest forced migration in history o 10-12 million Africans were forcibly taken and shipped into slavery o 2:1 men to women slaves o 15-30 years old, most popular or desired age o Slavery was included in the new England area Shock of enslavement o Europeans got 2x as much as African slave traders o Set up raids to go capture slaves o Would kill, torture, and capture slaves, separate them and put them in pins to eventually sell to merchants Panyaring: kidnapping by grabbing people and taking them onto a ship to sell o Kids would pretend/ play panyaring Venture Smith- a slave captured at 8 years old, described how he was captured o Slaves were separated from people they knew o Sometimes branded them if in large quantities Middle Passage- Africa to America; 3-4 month journey o Slaves packed into the ship o Tight pack method: people chained together, laid side by side, not much room, many died, fed very minimally, went to the bathroom were they were, lots of disease o Loose pack method: shelves of people, little bit more space, more of them survived and were in better condition when they arrived o Trouble makers put in restraints, sometimes threw them overboard o Sellers tried to convince buyers their slaves were good and healthy Used hemp butt plugs to stop bloody diarrhea “The Scramble” o Auction for slaves o Buyers form a ring around the slaves, they run and grab the ones they want. John Caster o Slave, says, “My master has kept me past my 7 year servitude” o Master: Anthony Johnson o Claims he’s his slave for life, Courts side with Anthony o Anthony was an indentured slave and had been given land when his term was up and so he hired John as an indentured slave People getting healthier, living longer Wealthy planters don’t want to share power Indentured servants are harder to find, they want some say o Cheaper and lived as long as slaves, but slaves were forever Royal African Company Ships slaves directly Laws change o Slaves are now born into slavery o Before being baptized meant freedom, now it doesn’t o Allowed to violently punish slaves
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