Notes for 2/18/2016
Notes for 2/18/2016 NUTR 250
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by mwastler on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 250 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Joel Timothy Cramer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Metabolism in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
NUTR250 notes 2/18 Carbohydrates continued from 2/16 1. Fiber from last notes… 2. Two types of fibers: a. Soluble fiber i. Dissolves in water ii. Metabolized by colon bacteria iii. Delays gastric emptying (stomach emptying…so slower drip of chyme into stomach) iv. Lowers blood glucose v. Lowers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes vi. Examples (names): 1. Pectin 2. Gum 3. Mucilage’s 4. “some” hemicelluloses b. Insoluble fiber i. Not easily dissolved in water ii. Not easily metabolized by colon bacteria iii. Decrease intestinal transit time iv. Reduces constipation v. Examples (names): 1. Cellulose 2. “some” hemicelluloses 3. Lignin (only fiber not classified as a carbohydrate…non- carbohydrate) ***increase intakes of carbohydrates from fruits/veggies/ whole grains= 1. Fiber 2. No sugar added 3. Complex carbohydrates Carbohydrates in food 1. Starch- ex: legumes, tuber, grains used to make breads, cereals and pasts 2. Fiber- ex: whole grains, legumes, tubers, seaweed, and functional fiber 3. Nutritive sweeteners (nutritive= provides kcals) a. Mono and disaccharides (all 6) Ex: high fructose corn syrup i. Made by treating corn syrup with acid that liberates glucose and converts it (much of it) to fructose ii. 40-90% is fructose iii. Cheap! b. Sugar alcohols i. Sorbitol ii. Mannitol iii. Xylitol 1. Benefit of these are no dental carries (cavities) because sugar alcohols are not metabolized in the mouth 2. Do contain kcals; 1.5-3.0 kcals/g…but, they are absorbed and metabolized more slowly than regular sugars 3. May cause diarrhea in large quantities 4. Alternative (non-nutritive) sweateners a. Yield little or no energy (very low calorie) b. Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) has been established for each FDA- approved alternative sweetener i. Amount safely consumed per day over a lifetime c. Examples of alternative sweeteners i. Saccharine 1. Sweet n’ Low pink packets 2. 300 times sweeter than sucrose (1.0) 3. Oldest sweetener 4. Develops bitter taste with cooking – not heat stable ii. Aspartame 1. NutraSweet or Equal blue packets 2. Yields energy at 4kcals/g, but much smaller amount needed to sweeten 3. 180-200 times sweeter 4. Cannot be used in cooking- not heat stable 5. Contains phenylalanine (amino acid) a. PKU: phenylketonuria rare disease, about 20,000 in U.S. per year accumulation of phenoalanine to toxic levels iii. Neotame 1. 7,000-13,000 times sweeter 2. Similar to Aspartame, but phenylalanine is not digested, therefore; PKU is not a concern iv. Sucralose 1. Splenda yellow packets 2. 600 x sweeter 3. No kcals, not digested 4. Made from sucrose chloride replaces the OH on sucrose 5. Can be used in cooking- heat stable v. Stevia 1. Also called Truvia or PureVia 2. 100-300 x sweeter 3. No calories (kcals) 4. Comes from plants in the rainforest naturally occurring / not engineered and can be sold as a dietary supplement 5. Recently approved by FDA for use in beverages Recommended Intakes of Carbohydrates 1. RDA 130g (multiply by 4) of carbohydrates = 520 kcals a. RDA is adequate supply for the brain and spinal cord without resorting to ketosis b. AMDR: 45-65% of total kcal intake as CHO c. Limit added sugar and nutritive sweeteners i. CHO should come from fiber rich sources such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains d. AI for fiber is 14g of fiber per 1,000kcals i. FDA says 25g per day for women under 50 1. Down to 21g per day for women over 50 ii. FDA says 38g/day for men under 50 1. Down to 30g/day for men over 50