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by: Melanie Maino


Melanie Maino

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About this Document

Week 3 of notes. We went over all of chapter 3.
Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Brianna Stinebaugh
Class Notes
Statistics, research
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
2/17   Chapter  3-­‐Alternatives  to  Experimentation     Non-­‐experimental  Designs   • We  use  a  non-­‐experimental  design  whenever  a  true  experiment  is  not   practical   • Whenever  we  want  to  test  a  hypothesis  in  a  real  life  setting  we  are  most   likely  using  a  non-­‐experimental  design   • VALIDITY…   o Internal  Validity:  the  extent  to  which  we  are  able  to  say  that  no  other   variables  except  for  the  one  we  are  studying  caused  the  result.   o Degree  of  which  a  study  is  free  of  confounding  variables  and  we  can   make  a  cause  and  effect  statement.   o  If  we  have  high  internal  validity  we  will  be  free  of  external   confounding  variables.     o We  can  only  make  a  cause  and  effect  statement  in  a  TRUE   experimentation.   o Clarity  that  the  independent  variable  is  influencing  the  dependent   variable.  In  other  words…how  controlled  is  our  study?  If  our  study  is   very  controlled  we  can  make  a  cause  and  effect  statement.   o External  Validity:  The  degree  to  which  the  conclusions  of  our  study   can  be  generalized  beyond  the  specifics  of  the  study.   o How  applicable  is  it  to  the  larger  population?  Or  do  they  just  apply  to   the  specifics  of  my  study?   • Non-­experimental  designs  are  typically  high  in  external  validity  (can  be   generalized)  and  low  in  internal  validity  (no  control).   • TRUE  experiment  happens  in  the  lab  setting  so  it  can  be  controlled  (high   internal  validity,  low  external  validity).   • All  research  designs  fall  into  two  dimensions:   o 1-­  the  degree  of  manipulation  of  our  antecedents   ▯ This  degree  of  manipulation  varies.   ▯ Example  of  low  manipulation:  recording  individuals  diets  over   time  with  no  enforcement  of  what  to  eat  versus  what  not  to  eat   ▯ Example  of  high  manipulation:  giving  participants  a  specific   diet  and  record  their  weight  over  time.   ▯ Non-­‐experimental  designs  tend  to  be  low  in  this  dimension   ▯ True  experimental  designs  tend  to  be  low  in  this  dimension   o 2-­  the  degree  of  imposition  of  units   ▯ The  extent  to  which  the  experimenter  constraints  the   participants  response  in  data  collection.   ▯ Example  low  imposition:  recording  everything  they  are  writing   down  without  task.   ▯ Example  of  high  imposition:  make  participants  participate  in   certain  surveys  and  do  specific  activities.   ▯ Non-­‐experimental  design  tends  to  vary  but  tend  to  be  on  the   lower  end  but  it  depends  on  specific  design.   ▯ True  experiment  designs  tend  to  be  high  in  this  dimension.   • 5  most  common  non-­experimental  approaches:   o Phenomenology   ▯ Interested  in  personal  experience.   ▯ Data  that  we  are  collecting  involves  any  immediate  experience   that  we  are  having.   ▯ Not  manipulating  any  antecedents  just  simply  attending  to  our   own  experience   ▯ Useful  for  discovering  new  areas  of  research.   ▯ Usually  used  in  combination  with  other  research  designs.   • Example…True  experiment  and  Phenomenology:  asking   participants  to  fill  out  a  self-­‐report.   ▯ Limitations  of  Phenomenology:     • Depending  on  what  we  pay  attention  to  is  what  we  will   report…so  our  attention  can  alter  the  results  of  our   study.   • Very  difficult  to  replicate.   • Can’t  be  used  to  understand  behavior,  but  can  be  used   to  describe  behavior.   • No  cause  and  effect.   o Case  Studies   ▯ Is  a  detailed,  very  elaborate,  report  of  a  single  case   ▯ This  single  case  can  be  one  specific  person  or  one  specific   group  of  people.   ▯ All  reports  are  kept  by  an  outside  observer   ▯ Not  manipulating  any  antecedents   ▯ Usually  recording  behavior  over  a  time  period.   ▯ DSM  was  developed  using  an  abundance  of  case  studies   ▯ 5  specific  purposes  as  to  why  one  would  use  a  Case  Study.   • 1-­‐  source  of  inferences;  look  at  a  single  case  and  make   inferences  off  of  it   • 2-­‐  source  for  developing  different  therapy  techniques;   • 3-­‐  very  rare  cases  can  be  studied   • 4-­‐  can  help  explain  and  show  exceptions   • 5-­‐  can  explain  different  abstract  concepts   ▯ Deviant  Case  Study:   • We  are  studying  deviant  versus  normal  behavior.   • Example:  recently  diagnosed  schizophrenic  and  a   person  without  schizophrenia…looking  at  how  they   both  behave  in  certain  situations  and  collecting  data.   ▯ Limitations  of  a  Case  Study:   • Low  in  generalizability  (ext.  validity)   • Impossible  to  study  an  individual  24/7…missing   behaviors  you  may  be  missing   • Rely  on  partial  information  to  give  us  info   • There  is  no  cause  and  effect   • A  lot  of  time  our  case  studies  are  relying  on   retrospective  data  (data  collected  on  past  events)   o Field  Studies   ▯ Used  in  field  or  in  real-­‐life  settings   ▯ No  manipulation  of  antecedents   ▯ Two  specific  types  of  field  studies...   • 1-­‐Naturalistic  Observation:  observing  behavior  as  they   naturally  occur  in  their  natural  setting.  No   manipulation.  Researcher  tries  to  remain  hidden  so  the   participants  cannot  see  them.  They  want  to  be   unnoticed…taking  unobtrusive  measures.  We  do  not   want  to  alter  behaviors  and  not  manipulate  behavior  or   environment.  Used  to  find  the  answers  of  specific   questions.  Rarely  can  be  done  in  a  lab  (ex.  parenting   styles/attachments;  set  up  lab  like  a  play  room  so  we   can  see  interaction  with  parents  and  child)   • Limitations  on  Naturalistic  Observation:   o No  cause  and  effect   o If  we  bring  natural  behavior  to  a  lab  we  have  to   be  aware  of  natural  behavior   o Times  you  decide  to  run  study  might  not  be   times  where  behavior  is  occurring   • 2-­‐  Participant-­‐Observer  Study:  When  the  researched   becomes  part  of  the  group  that  they  are  studying.   Usually  done  when  we  are  interested  in  studying   different  cultures.  Any  data  that  we  are  collecting  are   impressions  and  observations  of  the  researcher.   • Limitations  of  Participant-­  Observer  Study:   o Participants  might  alter  behavior  knowing  that   they  have  a  new  member  of  a  group.   o Researcher  must  remain  objective  if  not  they   may  form  a  bias   o No  cause  and  effect   o Ethics;  rely  heavily  on  the  IRB  and  their  specific   opinions.  (consent?!)   o Archival  Studies   ▯ We  are  using  already  existing  date  for  a  new  purpose   ▯ We  use  this  type  of  study  when  we  are  looking  at  societal   trends  or  finding  out  information  about  a  specific  population   ▯ We  go  back  to  specific  businesses,  agencies,  schools,  etc…to  get   past  data  that  has  been  collected     ▯ Limitations  of  Archival  Studies:   • No  cause  and  effect   • Details  may  be  lacking  and  may  not  be  collected  with   our  purpose  in  mind     o Qualitative  Studies   ▯ Relying  on  words  rather  than  numbers     ▯ Self  expressions/  self  reports   ▯ Low  imposition  of  data  since  there  are  no  constraints   ▯ Interested  in  meaning   ▯ Limitations  to  Qualitative  Studies:   • Watch  out  for  any  bias     • No  cause  and  effect   • Retrospective  data   • Hard  to  reproduce  or  replicate  these  types  of  studies    


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