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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
2/17 Chapter 3-‐Alternatives to Experimentation Non-‐experimental Designs • We use a non-‐experimental design whenever a true experiment is not practical • Whenever we want to test a hypothesis in a real life setting we are most likely using a non-‐experimental design • VALIDITY… o Internal Validity: the extent to which we are able to say that no other variables except for the one we are studying caused the result. o Degree of which a study is free of confounding variables and we can make a cause and effect statement. o If we have high internal validity we will be free of external confounding variables. o We can only make a cause and effect statement in a TRUE experimentation. o Clarity that the independent variable is influencing the dependent variable. In other words…how controlled is our study? If our study is very controlled we can make a cause and effect statement. o External Validity: The degree to which the conclusions of our study can be generalized beyond the specifics of the study. o How applicable is it to the larger population? Or do they just apply to the specifics of my study? • Non-experimental designs are typically high in external validity (can be generalized) and low in internal validity (no control). • TRUE experiment happens in the lab setting so it can be controlled (high internal validity, low external validity). • All research designs fall into two dimensions: o 1- the degree of manipulation of our antecedents ▯ This degree of manipulation varies. ▯ Example of low manipulation: recording individuals diets over time with no enforcement of what to eat versus what not to eat ▯ Example of high manipulation: giving participants a specific diet and record their weight over time. ▯ Non-‐experimental designs tend to be low in this dimension ▯ True experimental designs tend to be low in this dimension o 2- the degree of imposition of units ▯ The extent to which the experimenter constraints the participants response in data collection. ▯ Example low imposition: recording everything they are writing down without task. ▯ Example of high imposition: make participants participate in certain surveys and do specific activities. ▯ Non-‐experimental design tends to vary but tend to be on the lower end but it depends on specific design. ▯ True experiment designs tend to be high in this dimension. • 5 most common non-experimental approaches: o Phenomenology ▯ Interested in personal experience. ▯ Data that we are collecting involves any immediate experience that we are having. ▯ Not manipulating any antecedents just simply attending to our own experience ▯ Useful for discovering new areas of research. ▯ Usually used in combination with other research designs. • Example…True experiment and Phenomenology: asking participants to fill out a self-‐report. ▯ Limitations of Phenomenology: • Depending on what we pay attention to is what we will report…so our attention can alter the results of our study. • Very difficult to replicate. • Can’t be used to understand behavior, but can be used to describe behavior. • No cause and effect. o Case Studies ▯ Is a detailed, very elaborate, report of a single case ▯ This single case can be one specific person or one specific group of people. ▯ All reports are kept by an outside observer ▯ Not manipulating any antecedents ▯ Usually recording behavior over a time period. ▯ DSM was developed using an abundance of case studies ▯ 5 specific purposes as to why one would use a Case Study. • 1-‐ source of inferences; look at a single case and make inferences off of it • 2-‐ source for developing different therapy techniques; • 3-‐ very rare cases can be studied • 4-‐ can help explain and show exceptions • 5-‐ can explain different abstract concepts ▯ Deviant Case Study: • We are studying deviant versus normal behavior. • Example: recently diagnosed schizophrenic and a person without schizophrenia…looking at how they both behave in certain situations and collecting data. ▯ Limitations of a Case Study: • Low in generalizability (ext. validity) • Impossible to study an individual 24/7…missing behaviors you may be missing • Rely on partial information to give us info • There is no cause and effect • A lot of time our case studies are relying on retrospective data (data collected on past events) o Field Studies ▯ Used in field or in real-‐life settings ▯ No manipulation of antecedents ▯ Two specific types of field studies... • 1-‐Naturalistic Observation: observing behavior as they naturally occur in their natural setting. No manipulation. Researcher tries to remain hidden so the participants cannot see them. They want to be unnoticed…taking unobtrusive measures. We do not want to alter behaviors and not manipulate behavior or environment. Used to find the answers of specific questions. Rarely can be done in a lab (ex. parenting styles/attachments; set up lab like a play room so we can see interaction with parents and child) • Limitations on Naturalistic Observation: o No cause and effect o If we bring natural behavior to a lab we have to be aware of natural behavior o Times you decide to run study might not be times where behavior is occurring • 2-‐ Participant-‐Observer Study: When the researched becomes part of the group that they are studying. Usually done when we are interested in studying different cultures. Any data that we are collecting are impressions and observations of the researcher. • Limitations of Participant- Observer Study: o Participants might alter behavior knowing that they have a new member of a group. o Researcher must remain objective if not they may form a bias o No cause and effect o Ethics; rely heavily on the IRB and their specific opinions. (consent?!) o Archival Studies ▯ We are using already existing date for a new purpose ▯ We use this type of study when we are looking at societal trends or finding out information about a specific population ▯ We go back to specific businesses, agencies, schools, etc…to get past data that has been collected ▯ Limitations of Archival Studies: • No cause and effect • Details may be lacking and may not be collected with our purpose in mind o Qualitative Studies ▯ Relying on words rather than numbers ▯ Self expressions/ self reports ▯ Low imposition of data since there are no constraints ▯ Interested in meaning ▯ Limitations to Qualitative Studies: • Watch out for any bias • No cause and effect • Retrospective data • Hard to reproduce or replicate these types of studies
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