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## Principles of Milling Ch. 6 and Ch. 7 Notes

by: Nichole Knopp

18

0

8

# Principles of Milling Ch. 6 and Ch. 7 Notes GRSC150

Marketplace > Kansas State University > Science > GRSC150 > Principles of Milling Ch 6 and Ch 7 Notes
Nichole Knopp
KSU

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These notes cover the basics of the Gradual Reduction System. As well as, the basics of understanding how a Roller Mill works.
COURSE
Principles of Milling
PROF.
Churchill, Frances Maria
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
8
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Science

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Knopp on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GRSC150 at Kansas State University taught by Churchill, Frances Maria in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Principles of Milling in Science at Kansas State University.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
Ch. 6: Gradual Reduction System Objectives:  Know the purpose of each sub-system  Know the intermediate and finished products produced by each system  Know the definition of gradual reduction  Know the differences in grid on each sub-system  Know the difference between the primary breaks and the secondary breaks Main Steps of the Milling Process:  Break system- opens the wheat kernel o Scrapes the endosperm for bran  Sizings/Purification system o Removes smaller bran pieces  Middlings Reduction System o Reduce purified middlings into as much high quality flour as possible with the least amount of bran Gradual reduction  Grain and grain particles are reduced to finished product (flour) size by: o Breaking apart kernel, o Separating the particles by size, o Grinding/classifying and regrinding until each particle is of target size of smaller Break System:  Opens the wheat kernel and gouges out large chunks of endosperm  Releases ”sizings” material o Compound particles (bran and endosperm), suitable for purification  Primary breaks- Open the wheat, break off the bulk of the endo and size it suitable, while keeping the bran in as large of pieces as possible (Break 1-3)  Secondary Breaks-Scrape the remaining endo from the bran as cleanly as possible without shattering bran (Break 4&5) Intermediate products from break system:  Intermediate o Break stock o Sizings  Course  Fine o Middlings Sizing System:  Purifiers: separate bran and germ particles form the good endo stock o Bran is lighter, float to top from air blowing. Endo will sink through  Sizing rolls: grade stock into proper size ranges for efficient grinding Intermediate vs Finished for Sizing:  Intermediate: clean coarse endo sent to reduction system  Finished: salmonella and farina Intermediate vs finished products Purification/Sizings:  Intermediate: bran rich material sent to tailing system  Finished: Germ and flour Purpose of the middlings reduction system  Reduce purified middlings into as much high quality flour as possible with the least amount of bran and germ contamination Products form Residue (Tailings)  Finished: Germ, shorts, and flour  Intermediate: bran contaminated endosperm sent to tail end of reduction system Finished products vs intermediate of low grade system  Finished: Red dog, low grade flour  Intermediate: none Ch. 7 Roller Mills Objectives:  Know the definitions of roll differential, roll relief, pitch, spiral, “in tram”  Understand the four grinding actions (dull to dull, sharp to sharp, dull to sharp, sharp to dull) be able to sketch them  Know the consequences of overfeeding or underfeeding a roller mill  Know the difference between shear force grinding and compression force grinding  Be able to label the two sides (dull and sharp) of a corrugation profile  Know the diff. between the setup/how you grind on a corrugated roll vs. smooth roll o Brushes vs. scrapers o Shear force or compression force grinding o Where corrugated rolls are used in the milling process Pitch: the number of corrugations per inch of roll measured at a right angle to the corrugations Roll Relief: The taper on the end of reduction rolls which keeps the rolls from contacting each other due to thermal expansion is termed the area of relief. (Grind down the ends so kernels can get through) Grinding actions for Corrugated Rolls:  Dull to Dull Slo w Fas Roll t  Sharp to Sharp Slo Fas t w Roll  Sharp to Dull Fas t Slo w Roll  Dull to Sharp Slo Incorrect feeder rowl adjustment Roll  Over feeding: Fast o Material forced through roller mill un-ground o Excessive amount of stock can result in motor, belt and roller mill failure o Uses more energy  Under feeding: o Exerts the same force to smaller quantity of material o Results in excessively ground material o Operate at a higher cost per cwt of material ground, and are underutilized assets From the cleaning to the mill:  Conditioning and tempering: Prepare the wheat for milling: toughen the bran and soften/mellow the endosperm  Milling: Properly size and separate the bran and endosperm for optimum white flour production Main steps of the milling process:  Break system o Opens the kernel, Scrapes endo from bran o Keeps the bran in as large of pieces as possible, keeping small bran pieces and bran powder to a minimum  Sizing/purification system o Removes smaller bran pieces o Reduces coarse chunks of endosperm to equally sized particles  Middlings Reduction System o Reduce purified middlings into as much high quality flour with the least amount of bran and germ contamination  Grind and sift, grind and sift…  “get the flour to the sack asap” Modern Roller Mill (Under the Hood):  Feed Hopper: material goes in at top  Feeder Roll  Grinding Roll/ Chill  Roll Gap Adjustment  Roll Brush or Scraper: Keeps rolls clean Feed Hopper  Serves as a buffer against surges in the material flow rate coming to the roller mill Feeder Roll  Designed for the stock being fed into the roll o Course material requires a coarse feeder o Fine material requires a fine feeder Roller Mill Grinding  Limitations: o Capacity fixed length and speeds o Some grinding principles unavailable to rollers (Attrition and impact) o Design allows for grinding only the large particles  Benefits: o Apply uniform pressure o Very good at grinding to a consistent and uniform particle size o Effective for removing endo from bran while making minimal bran powder (shear- scrapes and Compression-smash) 2 main types of rolls:  Corrugated roll: used for opening up the wheat kernel and scraping the endo off of the bran o Centrifugal Cast- The mold used to form the roll spins around as the molten metal is poured. Forms a hard outer surface on the roll chill  Smooth roll: used for grinding endo into flour, called “reduction rolls” we are reducing the endo particle size Ch. 7 Roller Mills Objectives:  Know the definitions of roll differential, roll relief, pitch, spiral, “in tram”  Understand the four grinding actions (dull to dull, sharp to sharp, dull to sharp, sharp to dull) be able to sketch them  Know the consequences of overfeeding or underfeeding a roller mill  Know the difference between shear force grinding and compression force grinding  Be able to label the two sides (dull and sharp) of a corrugation profile  Know the diff. between the setup/how you grind on a corrugated roll vs. smooth roll o Brushes vs. scrapers o Shear force or compression force grinding o Where corrugated rolls are used in the milling process Pitch: the number of corrugations per inch of roll measured at a right angle to the corrugations Roll Relief: The taper on the end of reduction rolls which keeps the rolls from contacting each other due to thermal expansion is termed the area of relief. (Grind down the ends so kernels can get through) Grinding actions for Corrugated Rolls:  Dull to Dull Slo w Fas Roll t  Sharp to Sharp Slo Fas t w Roll  Sharp to Dull Fas t Slo w Roll  Dull to Sharp Slo Incorrect feeder rowl adjustment Roll  Over feeding: Fast o Material forced through roller mill un-ground o Excessive amount of stock can result in motor, belt and roller mill failure o Uses more energy  Under feeding: o Exerts the same force to smaller quantity of material o Results in excessively ground material o Operate at a higher cost per cwt of material ground, and are underutilized assets From the cleaning to the mill:  Conditioning and tempering: Prepare the wheat for milling: toughen the bran and soften/mellow the endosperm  Milling: Properly size and separate the bran and endosperm for optimum white flour production Main steps of the milling process:  Break system o Opens the kernel, Scrapes endo from bran o Keeps the bran in as large of pieces as possible, keeping small bran pieces and bran powder to a minimum  Sizing/purification system o Removes smaller bran pieces o Reduces coarse chunks of endosperm to equally sized particles  Middlings Reduction System o Reduce purified middlings into as much high quality flour with the least amount of bran and germ contamination  Grind and sift, grind and sift…  “get the flour to the sack asap” Modern Roller Mill (Under the Hood):  Feed Hopper: material goes in at top  Feeder Roll  Grinding Roll/ Chill  Roll Gap Adjustment  Roll Brush or Scraper: Keeps rolls clean Feed Hopper  Serves as a buffer against surges in the material flow rate coming to the roller mill Feeder Roll  Designed for the stock being fed into the roll o Course material requires a coarse feeder o Fine material requires a fine feeder Roller Mill Grinding  Limitations: o Capacity fixed length and speeds o Some grinding principles unavailable to rollers (Attrition and impact) o Design allows for grinding only the large particles  Benefits: o Apply uniform pressure o Very good at grinding to a consistent and uniform particle size o Effective for removing endo from bran while making minimal bran powder (shear- scrapes and Compression-smash) 2 main types of rolls:  Corrugated roll: used for opening up the wheat kernel and scraping the endo off of the bran o Centrifugal Cast- The mold used to form the roll spins around as the molten metal is poured. Forms a hard outer surface on the roll chill  Smooth roll: used for grinding endo into flour, called “reduction rolls” we are reducing the endo particle size

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