Genetics Week 3
Genetics Week 3 BIOL/PBIO 3333
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL/PBIO 3333 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Jim Thompson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
February 1, 2016 F. Exceptions and Modiﬁed Ratios 1. Incomplete Dominance 2. Genotype x Environmental Interactions Ex. Pharmogenetics 3. Gene Interactions a. Chicken Comb Type b. epistasis c. Other modiﬁcations of 9:3:3:1 4. Multiple Alleles 5. Co-Dominance 6. Recessive Lethality AaBbccDdEERrTt how many genetically different kinds of gametes will be produced? 2, 4, 8, 16 The number of genetically different kinds of gametes =2^n, where n is the number of heterozygous genes AaBBCcddEe x aaBBCcDDEe ?? Child AaBBCCDdEe 1/2 x 1 x 1/4 x 1 x 1/2 = 1/16 Genotype x Environmental Interactions Siamese Cats and Rabbits pigment enzyme is more active in cooler temperatures Beetle and Tatum siamese cat experiment put cats in incubator and turned chocolate, banned from cat club Pharmogenetics -According to a recent study, 2 million people were hospitalized in 1 year alone for reactions to properly prescribed medicines - 100,000 died - 4th to 6th leading cause of death in the U.S. Gene interactions epistasis - stand above, one is masking other gene Ex. No hair dogs have genes that mask for the hair that would normally be curly or straight Ex. Recessive Albanism Multiple Alleles Mother: A16 A3 B1 B8 C6 C19 D2 D4 Child: A3 A14 B8 B8 C6 C12 D4 D11 Could the following male be the biological father? A7 A14 B1 B8 C6 C12 D11 D19 Yes February 3, 2016 F. Exceptions and Modiﬁcations 4. Multiple Alleles 5. Expressivity 6. Penetrance 7. Co-Dominance 8. Recessive Lethality 9. Pleiotropy 10. Sex-linkage 11. Sex-limited vs Sex-Inﬂuenced G. Pedigree Analysis 1. Symbols 4. Multiple Alleles more types available than diploid Blood Type Example: Blood Type Possible Genotypes A IAIA or IAIi B IBIB or IBIi AB IAIB i O I Mother AB Father (?) IAIB O ii Child IA Can he be the father? Yes i? Is he? We don't know Expressivity penetrance: the proportion of the population that shows the inherited trait, it is reported and used as a percentage expressivity: the degree of severity of the trait in those that express it to any degree it is expressed as a descriptive range from weak to strong inherit the genotype D if dominant d if recessive trait shown in phenotype not shown = % penetrance range of expression or severity = expressivity Co-dominance -products of both alleles are seen due to the method of assessing it so both alleles are, in a sense, dominantly expressed Ex. Electrophoresis of proteins or DNA sequence sex-linked - located on the X chromosome sex-limited - on any chromosome, but the phenotype is present in only one sex sex-inﬂuenced - the trait is more severe or common in one of the sexes February 5, 2016 Participation Activity #1 F. Exceptions and Modiﬁed Ratios G. Pedigree Analysis 1. Symbols 2. Rules 3. Examples H. Probability - - Other Applications 1. Independent Events 2. Sequence of Events 3. Probability Formula wont use half black/ half white box for heterozygote because he wants us to ﬁgure it out Does individual have effected parent? Recessive skip generations
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