New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Jews and Muslims (HIS294), Week 4

by: Katie Nelson

Jews and Muslims (HIS294), Week 4 History 294

Marketplace > Duke University > History > History 294 > Jews and Muslims HIS294 Week 4
Katie Nelson
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Jews and Muslims

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Jews and Muslims notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Week 4 Notes
Jews and Muslims
Oded Zinger
Class Notes




Popular in Jews and Muslims

Popular in History

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Nelson on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 294 at Duke University taught by Oded Zinger in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Jews and Muslims in History at Duke University.


Reviews for Jews and Muslims (HIS294), Week 4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/18/16
Jews and Muslims – forgot notebook 1.20.2016 70 AD – Romans destroy the Temple Last Great War of Antiquity (628-602)  Persian Empire (Sassanid) and Byzantine Empire o Emphasis on centrality of Mediterranean for the Romans / Byzantium to stay in tact  Persian empire sticks to Zoroastrianism (semi monotheistic, fire god, benefits the Persian especially in the home area of Fars)  Plague, both have central religions and winds up being a “holy war”  Last burst of conflict o Last Persian empire flees into Byzantine Empire  Given power from the Byzantines to get back in Persian power  Winds up being in debt to the Empire  Last Persian empire assassinated in 602 o 613/614 – Persians take huge amounts of the Byzantine Empire o Siege on Constantinople fails in 626  Hercules leaves  In two years, the Byzantine Empire has crumbled the Persians  Wind up both destroying each other Proxy States  Empire needs both army and taxes  Some bad states that you don't want to rule, but also have to keep an eye on them so they don't rebel, etc. o Elect / ask a local man to rule in your behalf instead of being in constant rule o Byzantine = Ghassanids o Persian = Lakhmids  As the two empires go head to head again and again, recruitment of soldiers becomes more frequent  Proxy states realize that they can take their own power  Islam claims to come from rural Arabia “untouched by late Antiquity” o Modern idea is that since the proxy states were already in play, they couldn't possibly have not touched Arabia o 570 – supposedly the Persian army sends elephants to attack Mecca  Yemenites actually attacking, but for the Persians Pre-Muhammad  Only sources of history we have of this area pre-Islam are archeology and poetry  Ancestry in pre-Arabian culture = nasab (in Arabic)  Ajal = lifetime appointed to each person in Arabic  fatalistic vs. salvantionalist Jews and Muslims – 1.27.2016 Nativist Movement  Often pick up on a lot of imperial ethos and then channel it into a nativist one o Ex. Ghandi  By using prefiguration, Muhammad seeks to strengthen his movement o Easier to reinvent  creates monotheistic tradition Themes in the Qur’an  Tradition of Jews are evil, idolaters, and have rightfully earned the wrath of God and Muhammad  Christianity exists in Islam and the Qur’an, but not in the same light o Jesus, Mary, etc. exist, but not with the same divine qualities  Tahrif – Islamic claim that Jews and Christians have twisted the scripture and truth God gave to them o Anti-Semitism has a certain element of irrationality to it  Cohen asserts that this isn’t irrational  it's a political conflict  Monotheism is inherently intolerant / violence o Qur’an includes some positive references to Jews which allows for Muhammad to have leeway when dealing with politics  Not completely anti-Semitic and doesn't entirely reject the historical tradition  The more Muhammad is resisted and the Jews no longer listen to him, the more Muhammad’s arguments are strengthened  G : 28-30 in the Qur’an  “Repentance and Peoples of the Book” o “Fight those people of the book who do not truly believe in God and the Last Day, who do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, who do not obey the rule of justice, until they pay the tax and agree to submit.” o Tradition is ambivalent, legally speaking there is very little restricting the Jews Week 2 Guide  Ibn Khaldun  writes about the constant relation between the nomad and sedentary populations o The sedentary have the luxury, but the nomads have group cohesion and war advantages  Islam is described to be the sedentary taking over the nomads, getting used to the luxury, and the continuation of nomads taking over the sedentary again  Tribalism – a form of association that is larger than a family and smaller than the state o Form of association we are talking about references patrilineal line  570 – Muhammad is born o starts receiving revelations around 610 (exactly 40  in the Jewish tradition, this is when men receive a great deal of wisdom) o starts preaching for about ~10 years  610-622 o only when he started to attack the rituals at the Kabba do people start to take notice to him  own tribe turns against him o in Medina, he starts leading a political community as well as a religious one  very different type of prophet, but alludes to Moses and prophets of Revelations o wins a few important battles in Medina  Badl  victory  Uhud  loss, but don't press victory because they respect Muhammad and he’s a member of their tribe  Ditch  Persian battle idea, wins o Caliphates  Umayyad then Abbasid  people writing about the prophet are very far removed from early Islam  Hadith – traditions about the prophet o Isnah – tradition o Matan – text transmitted  Measure the truth by analyzing connections between the people who is writing / is being written about The Conquests  Changes the world from a world dominated by the Romans / Sassanians to the creation of a new empire o 634: Conquests begins; within 25 years, almost all of Arabia, Persia, North Africa, Spain, etc.  “Proof of God” o The Qur’an might be a miracle, but the physical change in world borders are the definition of a miracle no one could deny o Gives legitimacy  “God is on our side”  Jews and Christians have to come up with a logical explanation  Makes Islam into a world religion o Conquests really launch Islam as we know it; interaction with people of the ancient world create a new culture unlike Mecca and Medina  Produces a culture that transcends borders  UNIFYING  Technology is much more easily transferred  Paper  battle with the Chinese army o By 900 in Egypt, almost everything was in paper vs. papyrus  Changes in Europe o 476: The Dark Ages (sack of Rome by the Vandals) o 800: Charlemagne crowned; first great HR Emperor o According to Perrine thesis, Islam creates modern Europe  Beforehand, the Mediterranean was a Roman lake used for connecting the massive empire  Islam broke the Mediterranean into multiple parts  shocks northern Europe (France, England, etc.)  Makes Europe more northern-centric vs. southern looking  Settlement o Settle in different places – Iraq, Iran, etc. o Relatively few Arabs move to Persia  not Arabized, even today o Islamization  Some people convert immediately, but very few; some regions stay non-Muslims for centuries th  Palestine remains mostly Christian until the 10 century  Egypt remains mostly Christian until the 14 century  In the first 100 years after the conquests, you had to be a part of an Arabian tribe to convert  Islam at that time must have been more Arab than it is today  Historically, Islam has been extremely open to converts o Millions of slaves through conquests brought to leaders, who eventually become converts and the ranks of the Islamic Empire o Arabic and cultural exchange  Kunya – part of language that adds “Abu” to the name o Process of urbanization  Begin settling in garrison cities (amsar / misr) for the Arab armies  Arab rulers are put apart from the rest of the people  In the beginning, acknowledged separation between conqueror and the conquered  Slaves move into the cities with conquerors  Either manumitted and convert to Islam, filling the Muslim ranks, but some also don't convert and creates a religious diversity  A lot of texts show the Jews help Muslim armies, and is very strongly proven when we look at texts describing religious tradition o No mention of Jews in central areas of Jewish life being affected by what happen in Mecca and Medina  No sign of communication between regions; doesn't ruin Jewish / Muslim relations during conquests Hierarchy, Marginality, and Ethnicity – Dumont (medieval historian) and Cohen  Model of hierarchy o Compares hierarchy to the caste system  claims there is no oppression because each one knows his place  idea that there is no mobility or movement because there’s no reason o Jews, according to Cohen, wanted to have a differentiation in society because it means they’re not completely assimilating  Marginality – gives certain mobility within society o Sometimes gives power because one is outside the society’s power column o Inferior, but not excluded  have a place in the hierarchy, even if a low one  Very important for the hierarchy to be built in differentiation  Ethnicity o Mosaic idea  everyone wears something different, but there are many different parts (ex. Zummar)  Once you’re instantly identifiable, you don't need to worry about “purity of blood” because there is an established hierarchy o Ethnic differentiation was a major factor in preserving the embeddedness of Jews and Christians in the Arab world The Pact of Umar  Legal document and conquest treaty that outlines the rules for Jews under Muslim rule in exchange for protection o Umar = second caliph  A normative vision  a vision that prescribed as normal, or should be that way (usually through primary texts)  Dhimmi / dhimma – a non-Muslim who has been guaranteed Muslim protection  Jizya / jaliya poll tax  We can understand the form as being authentic because we can understand the idea of patron-client relationship o Create social cohesion is through this relationship  Does things out of nobility and compassion; must be repaid by loyalty  Extremely laden with Islamic social theology  parallels relationship with people and their relationship with God  Given life and a world and must return by following sharia law Analyzing the Pact of Umar (numbers in rows represent clauses of the Pact) Differentiation Hierarchy Humiliation Authentic? 1. No more * * Yes building of churches 2. Muslim Yes travellers passerby 3. Teaching of the Qur’an (Don't read our texts trying to find a problem with them) 4. No 4. No evangelizing evangelizing 5. Respect and standing upon entering 6. Differentiation in clothing (zunnar) The Economy: Jews in Europe and Islam  Christian Europe o Agricultural society  Jews were predominantly merchants and traders that couldn't be trusted  Suspicion about profit that comes from nowhere  Usury – considered a sin in the Bible  Loans needed for a variety of reasons  Jews serve a huge function loaning and maintaining local lords in Europe o Solidified their position in town, but become loansharks shunned by local population  Islamic Culture o Certain type of agreement promised in the Pact of Umar that gurantees protection for a tax (jizya) o Many different professions for Jews  highly diverse culture  Restricts stigmatism that comes with a certain profession o Jewish society undergoes a massive change after Islamic society  Kharaj – massive movement and influx of Jews into urban areas  Already urban and untied to the land, skilled in complicated professions o Large amount of trade in furs and slaves between Islamic Empire and Slavic regions o ~840: Ibn Ku  post-master and spy master; account of Jews trading throughout the Muslim world o ~869: Al-Jahiz on Jews of his time  Around the year 900, more books are written in Iraq in one year than centuries of Europe  Different type of description of Jewish economic role  Christians wind up serving the kings and lords rather than Jews  Contrasting descriptions require documentary materials  have more from sources in the future  Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders o Interesting contrast between what we perceive as a society dominated by religious difference and stratification  Letters between friends do not acknowledge this idea, regardless of the use of religious words and references to God o Attempts to do work across geographical distance  One problem in trade is getting labor done  Second problem is trust  does my partner know what they’re doing?  Most of the trade is done through religious affiliation  Another way to overcome is to become partners, which creates a stake in the profit o Reputation has to count more than the one time profit o Many of these letters are a source of reputation building  No guilds like in Europe that can create a sense of credibility for its members by joining  Reflect a cultural ideal where salary is less desirable than the partnership  Usually where the second partner does more of the work, but the idea of a partnership is more respectful


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.