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Psychology 14010 - Learning and Behavior Notes

by: Carley Olejniczak

Psychology 14010 - Learning and Behavior Notes Psy-1410-007

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Psychlogy > Psy-1410-007 > Psychology 14010 Learning and Behavior Notes
Carley Olejniczak
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These notes cover Dr. Marshall's lectures over Chapter 5 Learning and Behavior that we discussed in class on Tuesday Feb. 16 and Thursday Feb. 18. Overview of topics such as different types of cond...
General Psychology
Dr. Seth Marshall
Class Notes
General Psychology Marshall




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Ch. 5 Psychology of Learning and Behavior (pt. 1) Psychology of Learning  Sigmund Freud was the first the want to practice psychology clinically o Couldn’t measure or define his theories o Psychologists at the time abandoned Freud’s work and turned to something more observable: Behavior o Behavioral Psychology – looking outside the black box Behaviorism  Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior  Behaviorism o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning o Applied behavioral analysis History of Behaviorism  Pavlov (1849-1936) o Russian Physiologist o Received Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine in 1904 o Famous experiment: ringing the bell to make dogs salivate Classical Conditioning  Involuntary physiological responses o Example: salivation, nausea, sweating, anxiousness, sexual attraction, blinking 1. Unconditioned stimulus (US) –stimulus that naturally causes a response 2. Unconditioned Response (UCR) – natural response to a specific stimulus 3. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – an originally neutral stimulus that now causes a response 4. Conditioned Response (CR) – the response to the conditioned stimulus  US and UCR are always automatically related o When a natural stimulus occurs, a natural response occurs  Conditioning works best when the CS is presented right before the UCR  Example: Pavlov noticed his dog salivated every time he brought the dog food. The food is the US and salivation is UCR. Pavlov then starts to ring a bell every time he is about to give his dog food. Eventually, after several times of ringing the bell and bringing the food, the dog begins to salivate as soon as he hears the bell because he knows the food is coming shortly after. The bell is the CS and the continued salivation is the CR.  Associative learning o Can be studied empirically (behavior) o Is malleable (trainable) o Is closely connected to physiology John B. Watson (1878-1958)  “Father of Behaviorism”  Little Albert- famous patient/test subject for Watson o Tested inborn fears in infants o Found the Albert wasn’t fearful of any animal he came in contact with (dog, cat, rabbit, rat, etc.) o To instill fear in Albert, every time he saw the white rat, a loud noise was made, which startled Albert o Now, every time he saw a white rat or anything that resembled one, he acted in fear  Generalization: a similar stimulus to that of a conditioned one triggers the same response o Ex: being bitten by a dog makes you now afraid of ALL dogs  Discrimination: making distinctions between similar stimuli o Ex: New parents respond to the sound of their own baby crying, but not to a stranger’s baby’s cry.  Extinction: the loss of a conditioned response over time (usually due to no longer being exposed to the conditioned stimulus) Treating and Counseling  Can counter-condition problematic responses such as phobias  Flooding (not ethical at times)  Systematic desensitization Operant Conditioning  Voluntary behaviors  Edward Thornedike (1874-1949) o Law of Effect  You stick to what you know  A response that is followed by something satisfying is more likely to be repeated  Response followed by unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated  B.F. Skinner o “Skinner box” – cage for an animal that has sealed exits with levers or buttons inside for the animal to use to open the box  Designed to provide an environment to condition an animal to do a task (i.e. pull the lever or push the button to open the box) Ch. 5 Learning and Behavior (pt. 2) Operant Conditioning cont.  Real life examples: o Getting good grades as a reward for hard work in classes o Working in a cubical for 8 hours a day to receive the reward of money Skinner’s ABC’s  Antecedent (what happens before B)  Behavior  Consequence (What happens after B) o If you change A or C, you change B o Most parents like to change C, but psychologists like to change A Reinforcement  Primary Reinforcers – used to sustain life (such as food, water, or oxygen) o Unethical to use for behavior modification - torture o Example: Not giving someone food until they perform a certain behavior  Secondary Reinforcers o 4 different types  Concrete Reinforcement  Examples: money, toys  Social Reinforcement  High fives, “good job!”  Positive feedback  “keep up the good work”  Activity reinforcement – AKA Premack Principle  Having to first do chores or homework before going to play with friends o Difference between bribes and reinforcements:  Bribe = reward received BEFORE behavior  Reinforcement = receiving reward AFTER behavior  Punishment – refers to procedures that decreases behavior o An adverse consequence presented after a response o The removal of a positive event after a response o psychologists DO NOT recommend punishment as a consequence for behavior  Problematic side-effects  Negative Reinforcement – DIFFERENT FROM PUNISHMENT o It is an escape from an adversive stimulus o This is a way of preventing something unpleasant from occurring o Behavior increases o Example: Your alarm clock wakes you up with the sound of annoying ringing. In order to escape the adversive stimulus, you get up for the day. o Example: You smoke very often. One day you haven’t smoked in several hours and you get a horrible craving. To escape from the bad feeling, you smoke a cigarette. The Different between negative reinforcement and punishment  Reinforcement, positive OR negative, is always associated with INCREASES in behavior  Punishment DECREASES behavior Basic Operant Conditioning Principles:  Reinforcer must: o Follow response o Follow immediately o Be contingent on the response (you need to get the response before you reinforce) Schedule of Reinforcement  Continuous reinforcement  Intermittent reinforcement – “slot machine reinforcement” o Ratio schedule (number of responses)  Ex: For every 3 response, a reinforcement is given o Interval schedule (period of time)  Ex: Reinforcement is given every 20 minutes  Each schedule can become very predictable  Variety the schedules to see better results Reinforcement Considerations  Reinforcement not working? Consider: o Reinforcer does not reinforce (maybe there’s a competing reinforcer) o Reinforcer is inconsistent o Change is not worthwhile for the subject o Shaping proceeds too rapidly (too much expected too soon) Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABSA)  Steps: 1. What is the problem behavior? 2. What is the target behavior that is incompatible with problem behavior? 3. Select reinforcement (will it work?) 4. Administration and schedule of reinforcement  Example: o Problem behavior: a child is swearing o Target behavior: Replace swear words with other words to express how they feel o Reinforcement: When the child expresses themselves without swearing, give them a social reinforcer such as “thank you for sharing” and maybe give a reward o Administer the reinforcement


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