Psych Chapter 5
Psych Chapter 5 PSYC 270 Abnormal Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Schnellbach on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 270 Abnormal Psychology at University of North Dakota taught by Rachel Kramer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety, Fear, and Panic o Fear is immediate and in the moment o Sympathetic nervous system is activated o Anxiety is apprehensive and concerns the future o Symptoms: tense muscles, restless, increased heart rate o Both have negative affect o Panic Attacks are intense fear happening at the wrong time o Symptoms: dizzy, chest pain, sweating, chills, heart palpitations o Feel like you are going crazy and losing control, feel like you are dying o Can be either expected or unexpected Biological Contributions o Polygentic Influences CRF affects HPA axis o Neurotransmitters GABA, Noradrenaline, Serotonin o Limbic System Receives signals from brain stem and sends to hippocampus Fight/flight system o Brain circuits are shaped by the environment Psychological Contributions o Freud= unconscious reaction to danger o Simulates infantile fear o Behaviorists: classical/operant conditioning, associations, modeling anxious behaviors o A person's beliefs over their control over situation Social Contributions o Biologically vulnerable Self, family, occupation, education Integrated Model o IMPORTANT o Generalized Biological Vulnerability (diathesis) o Generalized Psychological Vulnerability (own perception) o Specific Psychological Vulnerability (modeling) Comorbidity to related disorders o 55%-76% o How one relates to the other Ex: anxiety & depression o 20% suicide rate o Comorbidity increases for all anxiety disorders Anxiety Disorders o Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) o Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia o Specific Phobia o Social Anxiety Disorder o Separation Anxiety Disorder o Selective Mutism o Etc. Generalized Anxiety Disorder o Constant worry o Sleep disturbances/irritable o Leads to over preparing OR procrastinating o Children only need to show one symptom Causes/Treatments for GAD o Genetics, neuroticism, frontal lobe activation o Benzodiapines/antidepressants o Exposure Therapy/meditation Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia o Unexpected attacks o Worry of another attack 2 o Lasts more than 1 month o Agoraphobia = avoid certain situations Fear of inability to escape/get help Persistently avoid situations that cause panic attacks Nocturnal Panic o During non-REM sleep o Caused by relaxation o Sleep terrors o 60% of people with PD suffer night attacks Causes/Treatments for PD o Generalized bio vulnerability = response to stress Conditioning occurs o Generalized psych vulnerability = worry about future attacks o Increased awareness o Medications = benzodiazepines, SSRIs, GABA o Exposure therapy, cognitive therapy, relaxation Specific Phobias o Extreme or irrational fear of object or situation o Provokes anxiety o *Significant impairment or distress o Types: blood-injection-injury phobia, situational phobia (public speaking), Natural Environment (storms, etc.), Animal phobia Causes/Treatments for Specific Phobia o Caused by direct or imagined experience o Exposure therapy/relaxation Separation Anxiety Disorder o Persistent/unrealistic worry that something will happen to self or loved one when apart o More prevalent in adults than children (4.1%:6.6%) Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) 3 o Worried about being judged by other people o Shyness o *significant impairment/distress o Avoid, or endure under extreme distress o Taijin Kyofusho Fear of offending other people Causes/Treatments for SAD o Generalized psych vulnerability o Generalized bio vulnerability o Treatment = beta blockers, benzodiapines, SSRIs, D-cycloserine o Cognitive-behavioral treatment = exposure therapy, rehearsal, role play Selective Mutism o Lack of speech o Occurs for more than one month o High comorbidity with SAD o Treatment = CBT most effective PTSD o Results from trauma o Continuous replaying in head o Numbed emotions o Reckless behavior o Personal problems o Persist for longer than a month after traumatic event o Most people who experience trauma do not have PTSD o More likely to develop if closer to the trauma Causes/Treatments for PTSD o Generalized bio vulnerabilities Twin studies Reciprocal gene-environment interactions o Generalized psych vulnerabilities 4 Believe everything is unpredictable and uncontrollable o Greater risk if no social support o Neurobiological model CRF system activated from threatening cues -activates fear and anxiety areas in the amygdala Increased HPA axis activation (cortisol) o Cognitive-behavioral treatment Imagine being exposed to situation o Increase coping skills and social support o Psychoanalytic therapy = catharsis o SSRIs Adjustment Disorders o Reactions to life stressors that manifest as anxiety or depression o Not as severe as PTSD o *clinically significant distress or impairment Attachment Disorder o Inappropriate behavior in children when it comes to development o Children are not able to form normal relationships with attachment to caregivers o Result of neglect in early childhood Reactive Attachment Disorder o Withdrawn and inhibited (not normal) o No wanting support from caregivers Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder o Low inhibition in children o Ex: not being afraid to approach strangers OCD/Tic Disorder o Obsessions and compulsions o 60% have more than 1 obsession o 4 categories: checking, ordering, arranging, cleaning 5 o Tic: involuntary movements tied to OCD Used to relieve anxiety Causes/Treatments for OCD o Generalized bio vulnerability o Specific psych vulnerability Learning Dangerous thoughts Act on thoughts o SSRIs o Psychosurgery (cingulotomy) o Cognitive behavioral therapy Body Dysmorphic Disorder o Obsessed with imagined defect o Appears slight to others o Comorbid with OCD o SSRIs o Exposure/response prevention o 76.4% seek plastic surgery o 8%-25% of those seeking surgery may have BDD Hoarding Disorder o Collecting/keeping things o Gets worse as you get older o 2%-5% of population Trichotillomania o Urge to pull out hair (including body hair) o Excoriation= picking at skin o Most effective treatment is behavioral habit reversal 6
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