New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Geography 110

by: Erin Butler-Córdova

Geography 110 GEOG 110

Erin Butler-Córdova
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for The World: Peoples and Regions

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive The World: Peoples and Regions notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa
The World: Peoples and Regions
Margaret Pettygrove
Class Notes
geography, countries, uwm, wisconsin, milwaukee, world regions




Popular in The World: Peoples and Regions

Popular in Geography

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Butler-Córdova on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 110 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Margaret Pettygrove in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see The World: Peoples and Regions in Geography at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.


Reviews for Geography 110


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/18/16
Latin America-  Imaginative Geographies of Latin America o Sun, warmth, tropical rain forest, dance, Aztec ruins, coffee, Spanish language, food, economic development, poverty, farming, strong culture, colorful o Soccer, mountain range, landscape, language: Portuguese, French, Dutch, etc.,  Questions to ask about imaginative geographies o Why are these particular images dominant?  Where do we see them?  Who circulates them, and why?  What are we less likely to see (that is there)?  Big questions for this week o Why have so many Latin American countries elected ‘leftist’ presidents in the past 10-20 years?  How is Latin America doing economically?  Economic disparities: within countries in Latin America o “Ecuador’s gross domestic product has nearly doubles since 1998, largely because of petroleum exports.”  What is economic development? o “…structural changes such as a shift from agricultural to manufacturing activity” Marston et al 2010. P.27 o Often accompanied by changes in:  Labor, capital, and technology o And improvements in:  Standard of living, education, health, and political organization  Economic Development in Latin America o Colonial Latin America: Silver, gold, sugar, coffee, chocolate o After independence: Primary Export Dependency  Agriculture: coffee, cacao, sugar, cotton, soy, and other fruits and vegetables  Minding and forestry: copper, silver, zinc, iron ore, bauxite, gold, oil and gas o Results:  1) dependence on other countries  2) emphasis on commercial agriculture for export  3) subsistence agriculture marginalized  Economic Development in Latin America (post-independence) o Agriculture: diversification, mechanization, and Green Revolution o Import substitution  Import tariffs  Nationalization of industry o Results:  1) industrialization and improved infrastructure  2) marginalized rural populations  3) growing government and debt  Why did Latin American countries go into debt? o Government decisions  Fixing currency value too high, then taking out loans to prop up currency  Example: Argentina, 1991-2002  Nationalized industries: governments absorb losses (due to mismanagement, markets)  Dictators: not responsible to people (example – El Salvador), ensuing civil wars  Economic Development in Latin America (1970s/1980s -) o Neoliberal Policies  WHY?  IMF, World Bank and “structural adjustment”, or  Hope of achieving development  HOW?  Economic Development in Latin America o Neoliberal policies  Privatization  Export production  Open to FDI  Drop ‘barriers to trade’ o Typical effects of neoliberal policies  Bolivia  Mexico Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonialism and Land Reform- Sub-Saharan Africa (Chapter 5) - Regional Features:  South of the Sahara Desert  Similar livelihood systems  Shared colonial experience Big Questions:  Similarities b/w European colonialism in Latin America and Africa  Why do we see so much news about war and conflict in Africa? Path to African nation-states:  Arrival of the Europeans- 1400s o Consolidation of African kingdoms o Slave trade globalized  Colonialization- 1800s o Scramble for Africa o Berlin conference of 1884  Independence- 1950s-1960s o Independence movements o Establishment of African states  Since independence- ethnic conflicts, democratization African kingdoms:  Formed African urban traditions  Many lasted into 1700s or 1800s (despite early European contact in 1400s) Pre-colonial Africa: Great Zimbabwe, 1270-1550 CE  Important trade site  Abandoned when trading shifted north  European explorers refused to believe Africans built this city  Colonial and independent Rhodesia denied African origins The Berlin Conference, 1884-  Divided up Africa, to what they want Why European Colonization in Sub-Saharan Africa?  Strategic locations (trade routes)  Natural resources (commodities)  Competition among European states  Religious evangelism  Exploration (ex: RGS) Colonial Africa: Transportation and urban centers:  Railroads built to make things quicker and easier  Railroads for transporting goods  Led to coastal urban centers o Today: primate cities Changing urban spaces:  Old cities of interior marginalized  New coastal cities and new interior cities o Segregated cities o Street plan o In-migrants from Europe, elsewhere in Africa o “cosmopolitan” Land Tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa:  Pre-colonial: o Communal o By residence and use o By lineage o Chief-allotted: quasi-feudal and feudal  Colonial o Individual ownership o European-owned o Commercial production: cash crops, mining 2/11/16 Discussion: Apartheid and the struggle for land  South Africa = colonial settler state o Other examples: US, Australia, anywhere that the natives don’t hold the power Worksheet: 1. Changes in land tenure under British and Dutch colonialism? - pushed black Africans into smaller areas of the country. Dutch imposed racial segregation (pass laws) Under apartheid? - introduced into law in 1948, policy of racial separation in most areas of life, 13% of black land becomes ‘homelands’ meant to eventually become separate states (to make SA white only was goal). 1959- large scale segregation. Some of the land was able to be taken away if not properly “occupied” or if there was political activity. Native Land Act, 1913 and Trust and Land Act, 1936 2. Goals of land reform? What does the land reform program actually propose to do?- Three pillars: restitution: restore land ownership and compensate those forced off land during white rule, redistribution: redress the discriminatory colonial and apartheid policies by providing the disadvantaged and poor with access to land land tenure program: secure tenure for all south Africans, especially the more vulnerable such as farm laborer tenants. 3. What is the state of agriculture in SA? For consumption or export? Food security? A country of agricultural export:  Food secure  Farming contributes 8% to the country’s total exports. Export products include pears, grapefruit, dairy products, meat, etc.  But- 18% children in hunger, 18% ages 1-9 are stunted, 64% vitamin A deficient. 2/18/16 – Sub-Saharan Africa Review: Nigeria and Zambia Zambia: crash + drought + SAP + debt:  Droughts in 19802, 1990s  Decrease in food production Recap and Zambia today:  Impacts of structural adjustment o Debt o Agriculture and food supply o Social impacts  Economic initiatives  Other problems o HIV o Congo refugees  Current leadership o Critical of Chinese investment, strict requirements of TNCs Why economic inequity and political conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa?  Legacies of colonialism o Political boundaries from colonial era o Ethnic groups pitted against each other by colonial powers o Economies dependent, fragile o Minimal civil society o Land tenure systems o Neoliberal policies  African states post-independence o Power remained centralized Today’s big question: What are the relationships between environmental issues and political economic systems? Environmental issues in Sub-Saharan Africa  Pollution (oil, other resource extraction)  Drought  Flooding  Mosquitos  Disease Econolgy Climate Change Vulnerability:  Drought  Flooding  Biodiversity  Fishery declines  Disease ecologies  Tourism Case Study: Kenya-  East Africa  Slightly smaller than Texas  Population: 37 million, 40+ ethinc grops  36 percent urban  Economy: neoliberalization 1993  Capital: Nairobi Kenya- Political Conflict:  November 2007: one of most stable countries in Africa  December 2007- torn by ethnic violence Kenya: colonialism to independence:  British colonial possession  Independence: 1963  Democratization: 1991  Neoliberalization: 1993 Kenya: democratization:  Pressure to democratize o Internal: social movement organizing, violent protests o External: countries providing foreign aid  Move to multiparty system: 1991 o Kenya African Nat’l Union (KANU) wins majority, encourages ethnic conflict in Rift Valley  Neoliberalization: 1993 o Grows by 2007 Kenya: Breakdown, Dec 2007  Pres, Kibaki re-elected o Vote counting issues  Protests of elections  Ethnic violence The Rift Valley: physical geography and agriculture  4 major rivers: Congo, Nile, Niger, Zambezi  Fertile soil Kenya: Rift Valley land tenure conflicts:  Best land taken by British colonists o Previously Masaai herders and Kalenjin farmers o Became White Highlands  Independence: land redistributed o Mostly to Kikuyis o Some to Masaai o Less to Kalenjin  Deep income inequalities o Land means survival Mali:  Export: cotton Deforestation: causes  Erosion from mining  Charcoal and wood from trees: energy source for lots of people Deforestation: impacts  Loss of biodiversity  Kenya- important part of the water system and how it works Deforestation: responses:  Greenbelt movement


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.