History 101 Week 1-5 Notes
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Popular in History
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catie Naylor on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 at a university taught by Dr. Chambers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
1 TIME LABELS: BP: Before Present (add 2000 years to BCE) used to measure deep history BCE: Before Common Era (subtract 2000 years from BP) counting down CE: Common Era, counting up (we are 2016 CE) PALEOLITHIC: Pre-History Pre-History begins around 2million BP Hominids: human-like species (maybe “big foot/yeti” like?) o Homo Erectus: first hominid to stand upright, designed to walk Their time span overlaps with Homo Sapiens o Started in east Africa o Not “descended” from primates, we are a species of primates Share DNA that dates back 4 billion years o Humans walked from East Africa to the rest of the world o East Africa home to different species of hominids They compete with each other The most successful species was Homo Erectus They flourished for 1 million years o 100,000 BP modern humans “homo sapien” emerged Homo Sapien means “wise man” Homo Sapion Sapien means “very wise man” We developed intellect o 40,000 BP modern humans had wiped out other hominids During the Paleolithic age, humans succeeded by adapting to the environment o Humans were able to perfect old hominid methods of survival Hunter/gatherer: men hunted, women foraged THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 Kinds of evidence supporting evolution o 1. Observations of the natural World Botany: the study of the natural environment Charles Darwin (18 century): survival of the fittest, natural selection He hypothesized that things that looked alike were related o 2. Archaeology Olduvai Gorge: (the “Grand Canyon of East Africa”) Confirmed Darwin’s prediction “Lucy” female skeleton found, believed to be from 3.5 million BP o She is the size of an eight year old o 3. DNA Human Genome Project, especially the last 20 yrs have seen major developments 1-3% of human DNA is identical to that of Chimpanzees 2 MT-DNA: mitochondrial DNA that is passed down through the female line (mother to child) All living things descended from thermophyllic bacteria “heat loving” organisms, living things prosper in warmth Punctuated Equilibria: instead of a steady slope, evolution resembles stairs more closely o Long periods of no change with short moments of improvement, then another long period of no change again o Racism had previously led people to believe that whites were the end result of evolution This Is Not True, obviously By 10,000 BCE the human population was about 10 million o Hunter/gatherers still exist Earth was/is naturally warming, anthropocene period has sped up the process NEOLITHIC 10,000 BCE (12,000 BP) different groups of people o Different styles of living and different languages During the Neolithic age, humans adapted the environment to them o After the Neolithic age came Anthropocene, “the time of the humans” Created a new tool called the microlith Began Agriculture o Cultigens: domesticated plant to not drop the seeds Humans are required for these plants to reproduce Sometimes wild plants are poisonous before they were domesticated (almonds) Sometimes domesticated are still poisonous and have to be altered after they are harvested Cassava (manioc) a carbohydrate Staples: chosen cultigens in a society that became the center of that society’s diet Today 1/3 of the world relies on rice as their staple o Benefits of agriculture: More food to support a larger population Hunter/gatherers could only support populations of about 150 people Demand for technology caused progress Needed place to store surplus of food (pottery/baskets) Caused social transformation in the form of specialization Planters, organizers, religious men, pottery/basket makers, traders o Risks of agriculture: Drought or flood could wipe out their entire food supply Farming people have a higher risk of starvation during hard times such as a drought or flood (famines) They were tied to the specific location of their fields Pesticides and rodents destroyed crops (cockroaches) 3 Caused conflict between groups ( they fought over resources) Pellagra: disease caused by a diet consisting only of corn/maize Eating only maize causes a niacin deficiency Too much food can cause diabetes Gouth disease of the rich 20 century diabetes is caused by the amount of sugar in our diets It used to be perceived as beautiful to be fat (Venus figurines) Agriculture reduces the variety of food and thus the range of nutrients 3,000 BCE people invented strategies of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the risks of agriculture through the use of technology o Bronze: ended the stone age 3000-1000 BCE It is a combination of copper and tin o Iron: needed fire hotter than wood could ever reach They used charcoal and crushed up seashells to allow the fire to reach the needed temperature o Hoe o They paired plants together for inter planting Rice/banana Wheat/barley Millet/sorghum Maize/beans Ethnicity: created an idea of us vs. them o A new way of organizing themselves o “civilizations”: all civilizations are a culture, not all culture are a civilization o Cities were created as a different way to organize and separate from towns and villages Towns/villages were mainly for farmers and agriculture Cities is where the people came to trade their harvest 6 components of Civilization o 1. Certain size (relatively large-ish) o 2. Social classes There is usually a hierarchy, (workers vs. employers) o 3. State: a centralized ruling figure (a government or a king) o 4. Public works: the state puts people to work o 5. Organized religion: a religion everyone can believe in (the universal religion of the particular civilization) o 6. Style: artistic tradition Art, clothing, writing (doesn’t HAVE to include writing) 4 AFRICA INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION 3 common mistakes believed about Africa: o 1. Africa is one big country FALSE. It is a continent with different regions, countries, and cultures Geht o 2. Africans are a part of tribes They are actually made of nations or ethnic groups Tribes: people believe they are all descended from the same ancestors “uncivilized” th This is what people wanted to believe in the 20 century The equator: imaginary line, only place where the sun is directly overhead at noon The Sahara desert is the cause of the dry air that is blown there from the equator o In Paleolithic times, it was lush with lots of water instead of the dry land it is now o About the last 15-20 years of every century has been a drought in Africa Most of Africa is grassland o Humans succeeded through adapting the environment to them o Thus began the aqualithic age: the water stone age They found the rivers, oceans, and seas and used them to their advantage Fishing led to the need to store food Pottery, basket making More protein led to taller people Aqualithic people began to look different making them distinguishable from other ethnicities o Pastoralism: herding animals for food and resources nomads are pastoralistic in the rainforest area, cattle is not supported due to the tse-tse fly bites cause sleeping sickness and is lethal for cattle and horses pastoralists couldn’t stay near the rain forests pastoralists developed a tolerance for milk o the natural human state is lactose intolerant after the age of three o not an issue anymore because the pastoralists built the tolerance 5 Farming: o In the grass land: They grew grains and barley as early as 12000 BP in modern day Cameroon o In the rainforest: Domesticated yams The development of iron encouraged such farming 2 EARLIEST CIVILIZATIONS Egypt and Mesopotamia both laid the foundation of Mediterranean culture o Egypt is the “gift of the Nile”, the small patch of green land that is surrounded by desert o Ancient Egypt was an early African civilization Mother civilization They questioned the after-life and were extremely concerned with the soul and philosophy o Ancient Mesopotamia was the land between the rivers Father civilization Obsessed with technology CONTRASTS o Political: Egypt: was formed in 3000 BCE when 2 ancient kingdoms united Cupper and Lower Egypt o Lower Egypt is actually North of Upper Egypt because they are referring to which way the river flows which is north Cultural influence flowed with the river o Upper Egypt was believed to be closer to the gods o Lower Egypt was considered the newer part They kept two different capitals o Memphis: political capital where the pharaoh lived and ruled in lower Egypt o Thebes: the religious capital in Upper Egypt Egypt was single empire for long periods of time (each lasted about 500 yrs.) o Old Kingdom o Middle Kingdom o New Kingdom King Tut was a pharaoh in the New Kingdom (died young) o There was no written laws o The law was what the pharaoh said it was 6 o Egypt was ruled by the priests (theocracy) Mesopotamia Faced constant conflict and instability Groups of little independent states o Sometimes joined together into one state, but always fell apart Babylonian Empire o King Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) Led the Babylonian empire for about 50 yrs Hammurabi created the first written law code Code of Hammurabi: new way of ruling Lex talionis: eye for an eye justice system o Aristocracy: rule of the few and the rich o Religion Egypt: obsessed with the after-life and the soul Religion was included in all aspects of life Polytheistic religion: belief in many gods o Osiris: the most important god of ancient Egypt. God of the Nile, god of death ( he is the god they believed judged everyone after they died) Pharaoh was believed to be a living god o Was forced to marry his sisters to keep the blood line clean o Pharaoh Akhenaton (1353-1335 BCE) proclaimed that there was only 1 god, Aten, the sun god This was considered a heresy Akhenaton was poisoned by a priest later Spent a lot of time preparing for the after life o Book of the Dead: a book about how to live so you could have a good after life o They built pyramids as graves for their pharaohs in hopes that it could help them in the afterlife Mesopotamia Had their own “Book of the Dead” called the Epic of Gilgamesh (2500 BCE) o A warrior named Gilgamesh goes on a quest to answer the question “do humans have a soul? Is there an afterlife?” o He spoke with several gods and they told him no, humans have no afterlife so they need to live a good life because this is all they get COMPARISONS o Agricultural: both adapted the environment to fit their needs Egypt used the Nile as a resource Became the bread basket of Africa 7 Mesopotamia used canals Both needed to protect their resources In Egypt the pharaoh controlled the land In Mesopotamia walls were built around cities to protect people and goods o Very Educated: Developed skills in the science of mathematics, physics, technology Egypt had hieroglyph as early as 2500 BCE Mesopotamia created cuneiform: wedge shaped Used for 3000 years which is longer than our current one Ours writing and letters came from cuneiform Mesopotamia created the idea of the zero Perfected the use of the wheel o Highly organized o Patriarchal: ruled by men 1500 BCE Mesopotamia: women were expected to wear veils in public to cover their bodies All but one or two Egyptian Pharaoh’s were men Queen Hatshepsut: in the new kingdom ruled from 1503- 1482 BCE o Appeared as a man in public to ensure respect o Mesopotamia had NO women-kings Women had less opportunities then Egypt Women of Nubia were considered the most beautiful (king of Kush) o Slavery It wasn’t racial, it was ethnic Hebrews were kept as slaves o Both influenced western civilization greatly Egypt’s philosophy (means “love of wisdom”) carried over Alexandria: the ancient library created by Alexander the great and held all of the known knowledge of Egypt o Was lost in a fire Mesopotamia’s technology carried over Chariot, zero, metal working By 3000 BCE they had perfected making bronze By 1000 BCE they had perfected making iron o They could now make better war weapons ANATOLIA 1500 BCE present day Turkey Had a clear understanding how to make iron They also had an increase in Malaria because of the iron and farming o Populations that were exposed evolved biological protection o Sickle-cell anemia: a condition that protected people from Malaria long enough to reproduce 8 ISLAND OF MEROE Tamed elephants to help them fight and protect o 218 BCE Hannibal of Carthage marched through the Alps into Rome Their elephants from Meroe survived Had their own written language Combined farming and Pastoralism Had a king Every year the rivers would flood the area so they had to deal with that Perfected the making of Iron o They had the perfected location, they were surrounded by trees (wood makes charcoal>charcoal fires help make iron) o They ended up cutting down all the trees ruining the fertility of the soil o Only grassland is left there now NIGERIA Nok: another iron aged civilization We don’t know much about them because they did not have a written language Extremely successful, they lasted 500 BCE-200 BCE Had their own technique of making iron Famous for realistic pottery busts They just vanished, we don’t know what happened Another good example of ethnicity o “we’re tall, we eat fish” o “they are short, and drink milk” Iron allowed them to adapt harsh environments to their needs 9 MESO-AMERICA 3 of the Most Ancient Civilizations Mother civilizations of the Americas Ice ages 80,000 BCE o Ocean separating Asia from America froze over allowing hunter/gatherers to follow the animals across the Siberian Sea 20,000 BP Archaeological evidence of humans in Pennsylvania 12,500 BCE there were people in modern day Chile 7,000 BCE most of the large animals had been hunted into extinction 5,000 BCE they discovered and domesticated maize 3,000 BCE there were villages and towns o The rise of Meso-American civilization MOUND-BUILDERS Lasted 4,000 years Farmed squash, beans, and maize Built artificial hills Wide-spread civilization Poverty Point: largest mound-builder civilization o Located in modern Louisiana o Center of trade for the civilizations (spanning from modern Florida to Missouri) o The town was planned. We know because the town is shaped to look like an eagle from above Cahokia was built up the Mississippi River and years later 700 BCE o At its peak it held 30,000 people o It was a city about the same size of London o Trade region o After 500 years, the people just abandoned the city Unknown why The center of civilization was in the center of the continent 1600 CE people stopped building mounds o The Spanish came in and conquered OLMECS 10 Lasted 1200-100 BCE They are considered the “rubber people” for their perfection of the use of rubber o They considered themselves “The Children of the Jaguar” o Jaguar is the king of the rainforest, they were very well adapted to the jungle ( symbol of perfection) The mother civilization of central America Obsessed with time and predicting the future o Created accurate technology to predict the future (a.k.a. A Calendar) This was the basic example of the Mayan calendar 3 main center towns: o San Lorenzo: 900-350 BCE “saint” (religious town) o Tres Zapotes: 900-350 BCE “fruit” (farming town) o La Venta: 900-350 BCE “market” (trade town) Tres Zapotes and La Venta were abandoned (no one knows why) They destroyed it and left Built heads out of basalt Did not develop iron, remained in stone-age using stone tools o They perfected the use of obsidian black stone, It is extremely sharp and sometime is used in modern medicine By 350 BCE the Olmec civilization had ended CHAVIN About 10,000 people Very Mysterious They were religious Lived off Maize Lived on mountains They transformed the mountains to create fields to plant on Maya and Incans came later Popul Vuh: one of the three book left undestroyed by catholic missionaries from the Mayan civilization Teotihuacan: in modern day Mexico Largest Mesoamerican city (over 125,000 people) Founded around 100 BCE 11 3 WAYS PEOPLE CREATED ORDER OUT OF CHAOS PERSIA: the political example Modern Iran o Some people even today still consider themselves Persians Farsi: the language of the Persians They are not Arabs One of the greatest empires of all world history Used a political method to bring order to the chaos o Specifically the politics of empire Empire: a state that unites many territories or people under one ruler (multi- cultural, multi-ethnic) o Imperare: “to command” in Latin o It works because the people are commanded by the government o Persia is the 1 Empire Achaemenid empire: lasted 558-330 BCE o The earliest Persian Empire o Emperors that ruled Cyrus the Great: launched empire by conquering other states His son Cambyeses conquered Egypt Darius: the greatest empire ruled 522-486 BCE Combined conquest with tolerance Conquered Southern Europe and East Built Persepolis: “the city of Persia” o Polis: means “city” Didn’t force, he created a policy of toleration o People could keep their culture once conquered (language, religion) as long as they paid their taxes Had a highly developed network of spies Built schools and colleges Everyone used the same currency Had a functional postal system Had laws as well Xerxes: rejected Darius’s idea of empire Went back to force o He forced everyone to abandon their old culture and become Persian Ruled from 486-465 BCE 12 Xerxes was emperor when Persia invaded Greece o Developed a religion that was open to all The universal religion: Zoroastrianism Zarathustra: founded the Zoroastrianism o He was traveling and preaching in 550 BCE Cyrus made it the state religion Monotheistic (only one god) o Ahura Mazda: the Creator God, he created the Mithra (helpers) Mithra were not gods, they were Princes of Light Angra Mainyu: prince of darkness, god of evil o Ahura Mazda created a world where living is a constant battle between good and evil Humans have to decide to follow Mithra or Angra Mainyu o Good will prevail, good people will receive everlasting happiness o Following Mithra involved enjoying the blessing of life in moderation Good words, good thoughts, good deeds INDIA: the religious example Famous for their religions o 2 of the largest religions today o Buddhism and Hinduism Created empires Indus River o People built a civilization along the river o Indus Civilization 3000 BCE o Neolithic farmers and fishers o Mohenjo-Dara: Indus City o Built their buildings out of brick o 2000 BCE it collapsed due to invasions from the North Aryans invaded creating the Vedic Civilization o Lasted 1500-500 BCE o Sanskrit: their written language o Upanishads: collections of 108 essays The word means “to sit near” (as in to sit near a teacher) They were obsessed with learning o Maurya and Gupta Empires Both Vedic Maurya was a land empire Gupta was a maritime empire Used monsoon winds to navigate ships Caste System: used to organize people o It is impossible to move between castes 13 o Caste: a social group a person is born into and remains in that group until they die 1. Brahmin: priests, teachers, intellectuals Highest caste 2. Kshatriya: warriors, nobles, aristocrats Rulers, princes More powerful than the Brahmin 3. Vaishya: workers, merchants, farmers, crafters Owned their belongings 4. Shudra: serf, peasant Did not own their belongings Untouchables: the lowest of the low Not even considered a caste o Samsara: reincarnation, the belief that the soul outlives the body If someone has lived a good life, they have the chance of reincarnating into a higher caste Hinduism is the religion that explains reincarnation o Bhagavad Gita: the Holy Book Collection of conversations between a god, Arjuna and a man, Krishna (a warrior) Explains the castes>>> If you’re the perfect example of your, you may be reincarnated up o Polytheistic religion o Karma: the balance between the good and bad The result of how you live your life Jainism began to form when people began to question Hinduism o They rejected the caste system but kept samsara o Believed that you could be reincarnated into anything o They were for absolute non-violence They begged for food because it was considered murder to kill a plant because there was a soul inside of it o Book of Sermons: their holy book o Still around today Buddhism o Siddartha Guatama the founder was a kshatsiya He asked why bad things happen to good people? He abandoned his family and went wandering and searching for an answer Nearly starved himself as a Jainist Ended up meditating under a tree Fell asleep for 49 day in a trance He woke up enlightened He was called Buddha Means “to awake” He taught the 4 noble truths o 4 Noble Truths 1. To live is to suffer 14 2. Desire is the cause of suffering 3. To end suffering, desire has to end 4. There are ways to decrease desire Meditate, distance yourself, Nirvana: to achieve perfect nothingness o Can’t be desired because that defeats the purpose o Can be achieved through the 4 Great Goods o 4 Great Goods 1. Loving kindness Be kind just because 2. Compassion Care for others just because 3. Take joy in the joy of others Be happy for them just because 4. Calmness Be calm just because o Zen Buddhism: developed in Japan Holds to the 4 noble truths and 4 great goods Says suffering can come from and over complicated thinking Simplify thinking and life CHINA: the philosophical example Created an empire o Chi’in empire built the wall to the north o Used philosophy to bring order to the chaos of life Philosophy: “love of wisdom” Shang Dynasty: the result of the collapse of the Chi’in o Lasted 600 years 1766-1122 BCE o Had a written language o Perfected the use of bronze o Advanced technology Calendar that is more accurate than ours Count in terms of 60 yrs Had an obsession with knowledge “scientific system” of oracle bones Used to get answers to questions The person asked a question, prayed, threw the bones on the ground and they would give him his answer Divination Archaeologists have found about 20,000 oracle bones o Collapsed into war Chou dynasty: longest running continuing government in China’s history o 1122-256 BCE o Perfected the obsession with knowledge They had books (Ching) Shu Ching: Book of History Shi Ching: Book of Poetry 15 Li Ching: Book of Rituals I Ching: Book of Divination o “book of change” People were able to read Qin empire and Han empire o Short moments in Chinese empire that were anti-knowledge o Qin Empire: 200 BCE lasted 15 years Burned books Considered knowledge dangerous Buried 460 scholars alive Focused everyone on manual labor o Han Empire Han Wudi: emperor 141-87 BCE Marshall/ war emperor Known for imperial officials o Enuchs: castrated males Mandarins: imperial officials, highly educated but couldn’t have children o Han Wudi relied on them Han Wudi got angry with an intellectual, Sima Qian o Accused him of being against the state and found him guilty o Sima Qian was given the choice of death or castration o He chose castration out of his love of wisdom 3 Main Philosophies: o 1. Legalism: harsh philosophy, asked the question “how do we question the state?” By having and enforcing rules People are subjects They are naturally bad, can’t be left alone People are the problem Make them behave through laws and rules and punishing them harshly o 2. Confucianism: how best to strengthen society? Kong Fuzi (Confucius) 551-479 BCE travelled and preached against legalism His students would write down his teaching into The Analects Kong Fuzi compiled all the thoughts people were having against Legalism Defined people as citizens with rights and responsibilities They needed more good people to strengthen society (people who know the difference between right and wrong and choose right) These people were considered junzi: superior individuals Not about money 16 They are honest, disciplined, educated, lives by honor o Honor: the ethic of caring what other people think of you o Dishonor leads to vengeance People earned respect by being junzi o Requires telling other people when they are doing wrong, but still remain respectful o 3. Daoism: how to strengthen the person? Lao Tzu: travelled around and fought against Confucius ideas 571-531-ish BCE He didn’t like that to be junzi you had to scold others People were defined as individuals Expand self knowledge Know yourself Everyone has their own dao (their own path) o You have to separate from the rest of the world to reach your dao o Relaxation and meditation Wuwei: separating from the world and meditate Daoism is a philosophy of dignity Shouldn’t care what others think because you are taking your own path
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