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PSYC 2010- Chapter 6 Notes (Knowledge Checklist!!!!)

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 6 Notes (Knowledge Checklist!!!!) Psyc 2010-003

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These notes cover the material from chapter 6 that's on the knowledge checklist on Blackboard. This stuff will be on our next exam. Enjoy!
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter  Six   Conditioning  &  Learning     Learning  is  extremely  important  to  humans  because  we  are  born  as  “Tabula   Rasa”.  John  Locke  stated  this.  We  are  born  like  a  piece  of  blank  paper-­‐  there  is  no   knowledge  or  information  present  at  birth.  Learning  has  to  fill  itself  out  on  this  piece   of  paper.  Learning  is  a  relatively  durable  or  even  permanent  change  in  knowledge  or   behavior  that  is  due  to  experience.  Some  primitive  species  are  born  knowing   everything  that  they  need  to  know.       Habituation  is  when  there  is  a  decrease  in  2  behavioral  responses  with   repeated  exposure  to  a  stimulus.  An  example  of  this  would  be  someone  coming  into   a  classroom  when  the  class  has  already  started-­‐  if  this  happens  over  and  over  again   then  eventually  people  will  stop  looking  up  at  the  door.  The  orienting  response  is   turning  your  sense  organs  such  as  your  eyes,  ears,  and  nose  to  maximize   information  about  a  new  stimulus.  The  startle  response  occurs  to  more  intense   stimuli.  This  will  reflect  surprise  or  even  fear-­‐  eventually  even  this  will  begin  to   habituate.  People  can  habituate  to  things  such  as  parties,  vehicles,  and  fights.  On  the   other  hand,  some  things  are  hard  to  habituate  to.  Intense  (jets  taking  off),   unpredictable,  or  stimuli  at  night  (roommate  returning  from  a  party),  are  harder  to   habituate  to.  Barking  dogs  fall  into  all  of  the  above  categories  of  things  that  are  hard   to  habituate  to.     Adaptation  is  when  sense  organs  become  less  and  less  sensitive  to  a   repetitive  stimulus.  Some  examples  of  this  would  be  sunglasses,  after-­‐shave  or   perfume,  feel  of  your  shoes  or  clothing  on  your  skin,  and  the  smell  of  a  closed  barn.     Without  habituation  or  adaptation  any  other  kind  of  learning  would  be   impossible.  We  are  constantly  exposed  to  thousands  of  different  stimuli  at  any  given   moment-­‐  99.9%  of  these  stimuli  are  not  important  to  us.  If  we  were  not  able  to   ignore  or  adapt  to  these  stimuli  that  are  not  of  interest  to  us,  we  would  not  be  able   to  focus  enough  to  learn  anything  else.     Classical  conditioning  is  responsible  for  many  of  our  “silly”  fears.  This  is  the   type  of  learning  where  a  stimulus  gains  the  ability  to  cause  a  response  in  us  that  was   originally  caused  by  another  response.  The  unconditioned  stimulus  is  the  stimulus   that  causes  an  unconditioned  response  without  any  previous  conditioning.  The   unconditioned  response  is  an  unlearned  reaction  to  an  unconditioned  stimulus   without  any  previous  conditioning.  The  conditioned  stimulus  is  something  that  used   to  be  neutral,  but  because  of  conditioning  it  is  now  able  to  produce  a  conditioned   response.  The  conditioned  response  is  a  learned  reaction  because  of  a  conditioned   stimulus.  A  neutral  stimulus  is  something  that  does  not  produce  a  response  on  its   own.   Pavlov’s  study:  Pavlov  observed  that  whenever  dogs  were  shown  meat,  they       started  to  salivate.  He  then  paired  the  meat  with  a  bell,  and  eventually  just   the  bell  by  itself  caused  the  dogs  to  salivate.     • Unconditioned  stimulus-­‐  meat   • Conditioned  stimulus-­‐  bell   • Unconditioned  response-­‐  salivation   • Conditioned  response-­‐  salivation     Little  Albert  study:  Little  Albert  enjoyed  playing  with  a  white  lab  rat,  but   whenever  a  loud  gong  was  constantly  sounded  behind  him  while  playing   with  the  rat,  he  eventually  became  afraid  of  the  white  rat  even  though  it  was   completely  harmless.  Over  time  he  also  became  scared  of  other  white  things   (generalization).   • Unconditioned  stimulus-­‐  loud  gong   • Conditioned  stimulus-­‐  white  lab  rat   • Unconditioned  response-­‐  fear   • Conditioned  response-­‐  fear     Concept  Check  6.1  Example  1:  Sam’s  parents  light  a  fire  in  the  living  room   one  night,  and  an  ember  shoots  out  and  burns  his  arm.  Whenever  another   fire  is  lit,  Sam  screams  and  runs  from  the  room.     • Unconditioned  stimulus-­‐  burn   • Conditioned  stimulus-­‐  all  fires   • Unconditioned  response-­‐  fear   • Conditioned  response-­‐  fear     Concept  Check  6.1  Example  2:  Melanie  is  driving  to  work  on  a  rainy  day  and   sees  brake  lights  in  front  of  her.  She  hits  her  brakes  as  fast  as  possible  but   still  skids  into  the  car  in  front  of  her,  which  causes  an  accident.  Now  every   time  Melanie  sees  brake  lights  in  front  of  her,  she  tenses  up.     • Unconditioned  stimulus-­‐  accident   • Conditioned  stimulus-­‐  brake  lights   • Unconditioned  response-­‐  tensing  up   • Conditioned  response-­‐  tensing  up     Concept  Check  6.1  Example  3:  Tyrone  has  recently  discovered  he  has  an   allergy  to  cats.  If  he’s  in  the  room  with  a  cat  for  more  than  30  minutes,  he  will   start  wheezing.  Now  whenever  he  sees  a  cat  enter  a  room  he  starts  wheezing.     • Unconditioned  stimulus-­‐  allergy     • Conditioned  stimulus-­‐  cat  entering  room   • Unconditioned  stimulus-­‐  wheezing     • Conditioned  stimulus-­‐  wheezing     There  are  a  few  other  terms  associated  with  classical  conditioning.   Extinction  is  when  there  is  gradual  weakening  and  eventual  disappearance  of  a   conditioned  response.  This  can  occur  whenever  the  conditioned  stimulus  is   presented  alone,  without  the  unconditioned  stimulus.  Pavlov  demonstrated  this  by   ringing  the  bell  by  itself  for  the  dogs  for  awhile  without  presenting  them  with  any   food,  and  eventually  the  dogs  stopped  salivating  to  just  the  bell.  Spontaneous   recovery  is  when  an  extinguished  response  shows  up  again  after  a  period  of   nonexposure  to  the  conditioned  stimulus.  The  response  will  usually  be  weaker  than   it  was  before.     Generalization  is  when  an  organism  that  has  learned  a  response  to  one   stimulus,  responds  in  the  same  way  to  a  different,  similar  stimulus.  This  was  what   happened  in  the  Little  Albert  case.  The  more  similar  that  the  new  stimulus  is  to  the   original  stimulus,  the  more  likely  that  generalization  will  occur.  Discrimination  is   the  opposite  of  generalization.  This  is  when  an  organism  that  has  learned  a  new   response  to  a  stimulus  does  not  response  in  the  same  way  to  other  similar  stimuli.   An  example  of  this  would  be  a  dog  getting  excited  when  it  hears  your  car  pull  in  the   driveway,  and  so  it  also  gets  excited  if  it  hears  any  car  pulling  up.  If  your  car  has  a   distinct  noise  to  it  then  eventually  the  dog  will  only  get  excited  when  it  hears  your   car  pull  up.  Another  example  is  whenever  you  hear  a  certain  tone  in  your  parent’s   voice;  it  stimulates  a  response  in  you  that  no  other  tone  does.       Operant  conditioning  is  when  voluntary  responses  become  controlled  by   their  consequences.  Edward  Lee  Thorndike  has  a  Law  of  Effect  that  stated:  If  a   response  leads  to  “satisfaction”,  it  will  be  “stamped  in”,  and  more  likely  to  reoccur.  If   a  response  leads  to  “dissatisfaction”,  it  will  be  “stamped  out”,  and  will  be  less  likely   to  reoccur.  This  is  a  common  sense  learning  that  not  a  lot  of  people  take  seriously.  It   is  one  of  the  most  powerful  types  of  learning.  It  can  tell  you  a  lot  about  why  people   do  the  things  that  they  do.     B.F.  Skinner  made  a  slight,  but  significant  change  to  operant  conditioning.  His   basis  for  the  change  was  the  fact  that  something  that  is  satisfying  to  one  person   might  not  be  satisfying  to  another.  He  decided  to  use  the  term  reinforcement.   Reinforcement  occurs  whenever  an  event  is  followed  by  a  response  that  increases   the  organism’s  tendency  to  make  that  response.  The  response  is  strengthened   because  it  leads  to  awarding  consequences.  Skinner  conducted  an  experiment  in   which  he  used  a  Skinner  box.  This  allows  for  an  animal  to  be  placed  inside  of  a  box   and  their  response  can  be  recorded  as  well  as  the  consequences  of  the  response.   One  example  would  be  an  electric  shock  being  stimulated  inside  of  the  box,  and  a  rat   jumps  around  and  accidentally  hits  a  lever  inside  of  the  box,  which  turns  the  shock   off.  The  electric  shock  will  eventually  come  back,  and  after  a  few  times  of   accidentally  hitting  the  lever,  the  rat  will  realize  that  it  is  the  pulling  down  of  the   lever  that  causes  the  shock  to  go  away.  The  rat  now  knows  to  pull  the  lever  as  soon   as  the  shock  comes  to  make  it  go  away  quickly.  This  is  an  example  of  negative   reinforcement,  which  is  explained  in  the  next  section.     There  are  different  types  of  reinforcement.  Primary  positive   reinforcement  is  related  to  body  needs.  It  is  when  a  response  is  made  stronger   because  it  causes  a  rewarding  stimulus.  It  includes  things  like  food,  drink,  sleep,  and   sex.  They  can  lose  their  effectiveness  through  satiation,  which  is  whenever  you   receive  too  much  of  a  particular  reinforcer.  Secondary  positive  reinforcers  are   learned  reinforcers  that  gain  their  value  by  being  paired  with  a  back-­‐up  reinforcer.   An  example  of  this  would  be  good  grades  meaning  your  parents  let  you  go  on  an   awesome  spring  break  trip.  They  can  lose  their  effectiveness  through  satiation,  or  by   no  longer  being  paired  with  a  back-­‐up  reinforcer.    Positive  generalized   reinforcers  are  learned  reinforcers  that  are  paired  with  an  unlimited  amount  of   back-­‐up  reinforcers.  These  are  the  most  powerful  type  because  it  is  really  hard  to   satiate  to  them.  An  example  of  this  type  would  be  money.  It  is  really  hard  for  money   to  lose  effectiveness  because  there  is  always  something  else  that  you  can  buy.  We   are  not  born  knowing  the  power  of  these.    Negative  reinforcement  is  when  a  response  is  made  stronger  because  it   causes  the  removal  of  a  negative  (aversive)  stimulus.  The  difference  is  you  aren’t   exactly  gaining  a  positive  reward,  just  removing  a  negative  outcome.    Escape   conditioning  is  when  an  organism  learns  some  response  that  decreases  or  ends   some  negative  stimulation.  An  example  of  this  would  be  leaving  a  party  where  your   peers  were  picking  you  on.  Avoidance  learning  is  when  an  organism  learns  a   response  that  prevents  a  negative  stimulation  from  occurring.  An  example  of  this   would  be  to  not  attend  parties  because  of  the  concern  of  your  peers  picking  on  you.   Avoidance  learning  sort  of  brings  classical  conditioning  and  operant  conditioning   together.     The  difference  between  escape  conditioning  and  avoidance  learning  is  that   with  escape  conditioning  you  still  receive  some  of  the  aversive  stimulus,  it  is  just   removed  very  quickly.  With  avoidance  learning  you  do  not  receive  any  of  the   aversive  stimulus.  This  can  be  done  because  of  warning  signals  or  by  using  your   internal  clock.       There  are  some  other  terms  associated  with  operant  learning.  Acquisition  &   shaping  are  the  initial  stage  of  learning  for  operant  conditioning.  The  response  will   gradually  increase  because  of  reinforcement.    Extinction  is  when  the  response   gradually  starts  to  weaken  and  then  is  completely  terminated.  This  occurs  because   of  the  reinforcement  being  terminated.  An  example  of  this  would  be  having  a   roommate  who  is  always  talking  about  their  significant  other.  If  you  stopped   sounding  interested  whenever  they  bring  this  person  up,  or  make  a  point  to  sound   bored  or  change  the  subject,  eventually  they  will  stop  talking  about  this  person  all   the  time.  You  would  be  extinguishing  the  reinforcer  of  giving  them  attention.  The   only  problem  with  extinction  is  that  sometimes  it  can  be  way  too  slow  to  be  really   effective.  Generalization  is  when  an  organism’s  response  to  one  stimulus  results  in   their  response  to  another  similar  stimulus.  An  organism’s  response  would  increase   to  a  new  stimulus  that  is  closely  related  to  the  original  stimulus.  Discrimination  is   when  an  organism  does  not  respond  the  same  way  to  a  stimulus  that  is  related  to   the  original  stimulus.  It  is  the  opposite  of  generalization.         Punishment  is  when  an  event  that  follows  a  response  weakens  the  tendency   to  make  that  response,  probably  because  the  event  was  negative.  An  example  of  this   would  be  spanking  a  child  or  taking  away  a  toy  when  they  do  something  wrong.   Punishment  and  negative  reinforcement  is  not  the  same  thing.  Punishment  is  the   presentation  of  a  negative  stimulus,  therefore  weakening  a  response.  Negative   reinforcement  is  when  there  is  the  removal  of  a  negative  stimulus,  which   strengthens  the  response.       B.F.  Skinner  believed  that  if  you  have  to  use  punishment  then  you  have  failed   with  operant  conditioning.  He  essentially  thinks  that  punishment  is  never  necessary.   Punishment  can  be  looked  at  on  a  spectrum.  On  one  end  of  the  spectrum  there  are   parents  who  never  punish  their  children,  and  on  the  other  end  there  are  parents   who  always  punish  their  children,  this  leans  more  towards  abuse.  In  the  middle  of   the  spectrum  are  parents  who  punish  their  children  a  moderate,  acceptable  amount.     People  are  punished  even  if  their  parents  are  total  not  punishers.  Teachers,  and   friends  can  give  punishment.  There  are  also  natural  consequences  for  your   behavior.  An  example  of  this  would  be  when  a  mom  tells  a  child  not  to  play  around   the  ironing  board  and  the  child  does  anyway.  The  child  pulls  the  hot  iron  down  and   gets  a  burn.  The  mother  does  not  have  to  specifically  punish  the  child;  the  burn  is   enough  of  a  punishment.  Dr.  Brainerd  believes  that  punishment  is  appropriate  in   certain  circumstances,  such  as  when  a  behavior  needs  to  be  stopped  very  quickly.  To   stop  bad  behaviors  in  the  bud  and  to  eliminate  dangerous  behaviors  like  aggression   to  a  parent  or  sibling,  you  should  use  punishment.         In  operant  conditioning,  a  good  outcome  is  more  likely  to  increase  the   strength  of  a  response  if  the  outcome  occurs  very  quickly  after  the  response.   Conditioning  proceeds  much  slower  if  the  outcome  is  very  delayed  after  the   response.  In  the  real  world,  most  responses  are  only  reinforced  a  small  amount  of   the  time.  Continuous  reinforcement  is  when  every  instance  a  designated  response  is   reinforced.  Intermittent  reinforcement  is  when  a  designated  reinforcement  is  only   reinforced  some  of  the  time.  There  are  four  main  types  of  intermittent   reinforcement:   1. Fixed  ratio-­‐  the  reinforcer  is  given  after  a  fixed  number  of  nonreinforced   responses.  An  example  of  this  would  be  a  salesperson  receiving  a  bonus  after   every  fourth  gym  membership  sold.   2. Variable  ratio-­‐  the  reinforcer  is  given  after  a  variable  number  of   nonreinforced  responses.  There  is  a  predetermined  average  for  this  number.   An  example  of  this  would  be  a  slot  machine  paying  off  every  one  in  six  tries,   on  average.     3. Fixed  interval-­‐  the  reinforcer  is  given  for  the  first  response  after  a  fixed  time   interval  has  passed.  An  example  of  this  would  be  being  able  to  get  clean   clothes  out  of  the  washing  machine  every  45  minutes.  You  then  would  have   to  wait  another  45  minutes  to  get  clean  clothes  from  this  washing  machine.     4. Variable  interval-­‐  the  reinforcer  is  given  for  the  first  response  after  a  variable   time  interval  has  passed.  There  is  an  average  for  this  amount  of  time.  An   example  of  this  would  be  someone  calling  a  busy  line  and  not  being  able  to   get  through.  The  amount  of  time  they  were  on  the  line  would  vary;  the   reinforcer  would  be  getting  through  the  line.     Fixed  ratio  and  fixed  interval  both  have  a  lower  resistance  to  extinction.   Variable  ratio  and  variable  interval  both  have  a  higher  resistance  to  extinction.   Higher  ratio  will  generate  an  overall  higher  response  rate,  and  shorter  intervals  will   generate  higher  rates  overall.         Preparedness  explains  why  some  phobias  are  a  lot  more  common  than   others.  The  things  that  were  threats  to  our  ancestors  are  things  that  we  are  more   likely  to  be  afraid  of  now.       Conditioned  taste  aversion  is  whenever  you  eat  something  and  it  makes   you  sick,  and  you  feel  nauseous  whenever  you  smell  or  taste  it  again.  It  is  sort  of  like   classical  conditioning,  except  the  time  between  the  stimulus  and  the  response  are   much  longer  than  regular  classical  conditioning.  This  does  not  work  with  things  that   have  to  do  with  visual  or  auditory  stimuli.  Researchers  believe  it  is  because  of   natural  selection  causing  organisms  to  realize  really  quickly  that  they  cannot  eat   certain  food  or  they  will  die.       Latent  learning  is  learning  that  is  not  apparent  from  the  behavior  of  an   organism  when  it  first  occurs.  This  was  demonstrated  by  3  groups  of  rats  in  an   experiment.  All  of  the  rats  in  all  of  the  groups  ran  through  a  maze  a  repeated   number  of  times.  The  rats  in  group  1  received  a  treat  when  they  got  through  the   maze  quickly.  The  rats  in  group  2  did  not  receive  anything  for  getting  through  the   maze  quickly.  The  rats  in  group  3  received  nothing  at  first  but  then  when  about  half   of  the  trials  were  done  they  started  to  receive  a  treat  for  getting  through  the  maze   quickly.  The  rats  in  group  1  improved  a  lot  from  the  start.  The  rats  in  group  2  did   not  improve  very  much.  The  rats  in  group  3  improved  much  more  after  the  treat   was  introduced.  Rats  that  displayed  latent  learning  formed  a  cognitive  map  in  their   brains  of  the  maze.       Signal  relationships  deal  with  the  fact  that  some  signals  are  better  and   more  dependable  than  other  signals.  Good  signals  allow  you  to  accurately  predict   the  unconditioned  stimulus.  To  demonstrate  this  some  rats  had  paired  stimuli  100%   of  the  time  and  some  rats  had  paired  stimuli  only  50%  of  the  time.  Fear  was  much   more  common  in  the  group  that  had  the  more  dependable  signal.       Response-­‐outcome  relationships  aka  superstitious  behavior  was   established  by  noncontingent  reinforcement.  This  is  when  a  response  is  accidentally   made  stronger  by  a  reinforcer.  This  would  be  like  if  you  listen  to  a  certain  artist   while  studying  for  an  exam  and  you  make  an  A  on  the  exam,  you  might  start   listening  to  that  artist  more  often  when  you’re  studying.  This  is  the  same  reason  that   some  athletes  wear  “special”  socks  while  playing  or  eating  the  same  lunch  before  a   game.  This  is  also  why  people  say,  “Knock  on  wood”  so  they  do  not  jinx  themselves.         Observational  learning  accounts  for  a  great  deal  of  learning  in  humans.   This  is  when  an  organism’s  response  is  influenced  by  observing  what  others  do   (models).  Albert  Bandura  did  a  study  involving  a  Bobo  Doll.  It  was  just  a  big  doll  that   was  able  to  stand  up  and  be  punched  like  an  actual  person.  When  children  saw  a   teacher  beat  up  the  doll  and  call  it  names,  they  all  mimicked  the  teacher’s  action.   This  led  to  the  later  concern  of  media  violence,  which  is  explained  right  after  this.   Bandura  also  said  there  were  4  basic  processes  for  this  type  of  learning:   1. Attention-­‐  to  learn  by  observation  you  need  to  pay  attention  to  what  other’s   are  doing   2. Retention-­‐  you  need  to  be  able  to  store  what  you  are  observing  into  your   memory   3. Reproduction-­‐  you  need  to  be  able  to  replicate  what  you  are  observing  on   your  own   4. Motivation-­‐  you  need  to  have  the  motivation  to  enact  what  you  observed       The  things  that  people  mimic  from  others  is  based  off  of  what  they  observe   happening  to  the  person  after  they  have  done  a  certain  action.  This  is  called   vicarious  reinforcement  and  punishment.  An  example  of  this  would  be  a  little   kid  seeing  another  little  kid  get  hurt  after  they  attempt  a  trick  on  their  bike.  This   little  kid  will  most  likely  not  want  to  try  to  do  this  same  trick.       There  was  a  study  done  to  see  whether  or  not  children  being  exposed  to   violent  behavior  on  TV  made  them  more  prone  to  aggressive  activity  themselves.   This  was  the  power  of  modeling.  Some  children  watched  a  TV  show  where  there   was  some  violence  and  other  children  did  not  watch  this.  Then  the  children  were   put  into  a  room  with  different  toys,  some  toys  just  being  normal  and  others  being   ones  that  could  have  violence  inflicted  on  them.  The  children  who  were  exposed  to   the  TV  show  with  the  violence  were  the  ones  who  played  with  the  toys  they  were   able  to  be  violent  with.  Other  studies  have  shown  that  being  exposed  to  a  lot  of   violence  in  TV  shows  or  video  games  makes  one  less  sensitive  to  the  actual  violence   going  on  in  the  real  world.  It  also  showed  that  people  exposed  to  more  violence  by   media  were  less  sensitive  to  people  that  were  suffering  or  in  need.  Many   researchers  argue  that  the  effects  of  media  violence  are  weak  because  there  are  so   many  other  things  that  can  influence  one’s  aggression.  These  studies  were  done   with  correlational  research.       Personal  Application-­‐  Achieving  Self-­‐Control  through  Behavior  Modification     • Behavior  modification  is  a  systematic  approach  to  changing  behavior   through  the  application  of  the  principles  of  conditioning-­‐  assumes  that  what   is  learned  can  be  unlearned   • The  first  step  would  be  to  identify  the  behaviors  that  you  want  to  change,   sometimes  this  is  a  hard  thing  to  do-­‐  statement  should  be  precise   • The  second  step  is  to  gather  baseline  data-­‐  observe  the  target  behavior  for  a   few  weeks.  It  is  good  to  keep  written  records   • The  biggest  step  is  to  design  an  intervention  program-­‐  it  is  important  to  find   a  positive  reinforcer  that  works  for  you   • You  should  have  some  sort  of  punishment  if  you  do  not  follow  through     Critical  Thinking  Application-­‐  Recognizing  Contrast  Effects:  It’s  All  Relative     • Classical  conditioning  is  used  in  persuasive  ways     • Different  products  are  paired  with  popular  things  such  as  celebrities,  loving   families,  pets,  or  music   • Their  goal  is  to  make  their  products  be  associated  with  pleasant  feelings   • Sometimes  classical  conditioning  will  be  involved  with  things  such  as  taking   someone  out  to  a  dinner  or  event   • Election  campaign  ads  are  also  done  in  this  same  way    


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