HY 104 Lecture Notes Feb 4-18
HY 104 Lecture Notes Feb 4-18 HY 104
Popular in American Civilization Since 1865
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conner Jones on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Bart Elmore in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 298 views. For similar materials see American Civilization Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
The Progressive Era (1900-1914) America in a new Millennium Tough living in dirty cities th o Only 9 cities had more than 100,000 people at end of 19 century o Pollution in streets (horse poop) o Rise of crime in cities o Nasty situations in factories like the meat packing industry o Air pollution from coal burning Roots of progressivism A new middle class Jane Addams and the Settlement House movement o Jane born in 1860 in Cedarville, Illinois o Graduate of Rockford Seminary o Proponent of social gospel o Pioneer in the Settlement House Movement- middle house people lived with lower class people to teach them values and ethics Women’s Christian temperance union- wanted to ban alcohol National progressive politics beyond the city President Teddy Roosevelt o Had asthma as a kid, seen as sickly kid in the family o Believed in the strenuous life (boxing, hard work) o Teddy Roosevelt and the rough riders of Spanish-American War (1898) o Became president after William McKinley was assassinated Roosevelt’s Three C’s o Corporate control Breaks up monopolies to bring prices down o Consumer protection Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 (FDA) o Conservation Wanted to preserve parks and resources The preservationists v. conservationists Conservationists- Teddy Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot o Grand Canyon National Monument 1908 o US Forest Service (1905)- Roosevelt created this so we can preserve trees so we don’t use them up o Gospel of efficiency- we need to “efficiently” use resources if we want to prosper in the years ahead John Muir and Sierra Club (1892) o Believed that we should be protecting nature, not just conserving it o John Muir’s trek through American south 1867-1868 o Sierra Club- founded by John Muir, helps preserve wildlands especially in California The battle over Hetch Hetchy Valley February 16, 2016 Presidency of William H. Taft Deviations from Roosevelt o Corporate control: Northern Securities Company V. United States (1904)- wanted to control most of railroads in US to form monopoly. US argued that they violated Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. US won and company broke up o William Howard Taft wins election of 1908 (won handily with support of Roosevelt) th o Taft supports passing of the 16 amendment (1913)- gave the federal government the right to impose income taxes in the US Pinchot-Ballinger affair Election of 1912 New nationalism (Roosevelt) v. new freedom (Wilson) o Teddy Roosevelt, campaigning in 1912 as progressive party (bull moose party) o Woodrow Wilson is democratic party nominee Supports states rights Eugene V. Debs and the socialist party o Socialist party got 6% of national popular vote in 1912 Woodrow Wilson wins election o Democrats have the white house back, because: Republicans split into two parties South voted almost entirely democratic due to Jim Crow laws A shaky democracy ventures overseas (1900-1914) The Roosevelt corollary- addition to Monroe doctrine, says that the U.S. could intervene in affairs of an American republic that is threatened with seizure or intervention by a European country Dollar diplomacy- using a country's financial and business power to extend its influence internationally Woodrow Wilson’s initial foreign policy Wilson faces war (1917-1919) Assignation of Franz Ferdinand sets off world war 1 Reasons Wilson does not want to go to war o Wants to remain neutral o Wants to remain allies with Russia Sussex pledge (1916)- Germans said they would stop unrestricted submarine warfare Election of 1916: “I kept us out of the war” – Wilson The US declares war on Germany, April 6, 1917 Zimmerman telegram- meant for Mexico, US intercept, encourages Mexico to enter war on central powers side and take military action against US, if they do this Germany will acquire Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas for Mexico Wilson says that we are going to war to “make the world safe for democracy” o Manifest destiny, US has a right to make world affairs right The roaring twenties – American returns to peacetime America at war (1917-1919) Going to battle, spring of 1917 o America declares war on April 6 1917 o Commanded by general John J. Pershing Brokering peace o The Bolshevik revolution of 1917 closes eastern front o On march of 1918, Russia under communist leadership opt out of the war o Wilson’s fourteen points of 1918 – restored peace after the war was over Freedom of the seas Free trade National self-determination Association of nations (League of Nations) o Wilson signs armistice on November 11, 1918 o Versailles treaty signed on June 28, 1919 o US congress doesn’t approve League of Nations The postwar economy roars after brief postwar depression (Roaring 20’s) Fordism o Mass production of automobiles creates lots of jobs and stimulates market o Henry ford started Ford Motor company in 1905 o Model T becomes popular in the 19 teens Electrical appliances, radios, and movies o Emergence of installment credit o In 1929 alone 80 million Americans go to the movies o People are spending more money than ever on luxury items Female liberation in the 1920’s The 19 amendment o Gives women the right to vote Margaret sanger, birth control and flappers o American birth control league founded in 1921 o Flappers are fashionable young woman enjoying themselves and flouting conventional standards of behavior African American challenges to traditional America The great migration 1919-1920 o Thousands of African Americans moving to northern cities like New York and Chicago Harlem renaissance o Langston Hughes writes black pride poetry during this time period African American freedom fighters o Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (1914) Conservative backlash 18 amendment (1919) and prohibition – alcohol is banned people get alcohol from underground mobsters like Al Capone
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