Psychology 220 Week 5 Notes
Psychology 220 Week 5 Notes Psych 220
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #5 2/16 Chapter 5: The First Two Years; Biosocial Development Overview Parts of the infant that grow most If brain wiring in the first two years depends on genes or experience When the senses develop Vaccinations for a baby Brain Development -About 80% of the human brain material is in the cortex Cortex: the six outer layers of the human (and other mammals) brain -The cortex is much smaller in other mammals, and there is no cortex in non-mammals -Most thinking, feeling, and sensing are processed in the cortex Prefrontal cortex: the area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control *The prefrontal cortex is the last part of the brain to mature Head-sparing: a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition Neurons: nerve cells that transmit information; starting point of communication with the central nervous system (CNS) *All your neurons created at birth Axon: the branch that transmits electrochemical impulse messages from one neuron to other neurons Dendrite: the branch that receives electrochemical impulse messages from axons of other cells Synapse: gap/intersection where an axon of one neuron meets the dendrite of another Synaptic gap: the pathway across which neurotransmitters carry information from the axon of the sending neuron to the dendrites of the receiving neuron Myelin: sheath of fatty cells that insulates some axons Neurotransmitter: a brain chemical that carried information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron Transient Exuberance: Large but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that develop in an infant’s brain during the first two years; expanded growth, followed by pruning Pruning: the process by which unused connections and neurons in the brain die As the Brain Develops: Increase in size/complexity of dendrites Increase in number of branches of axons Increase in number of synapses Mylenation: speeds up neural messages Self-righting: the inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit; the returning to sitting/standing after being tipped over. Seeks emotional as well as physical balance Cycles of Overproduction: Neurogenesis: proliferation of neurons prenatally, followed by neuronal death Synaptogenesis: proliferation of synapses in cortex begins at birth, followed by pruning of synapses that are not used Experience-expectant: must happen -Certain brain functions require basic experiences in order to develop normally Example: a baby must develop language skills and learn to speak Experience-dependent: might happen -Certain brain functions depend on particular experiences that are not essential to normal development Example: a baby learns to speak Spanish by hearing parents speak Spanish Harming the Infant Brain: Lack of stimulation Stress to the brain Shaken Baby Syndrome -Life-threatening injury occurring when an infant is forcefully shaken -Can rupture blood vessels and break neural connections Social Deprivation Senses: Hearing o Develops during last trimester of pregnancy Seeing o Immature at birth; newborns are legally blind o Binocular vision –ability to focus two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image Smelling/Tasting o Functioned at birth Touching o Acute in infants Sensation and Perception *In this order of occurrence 1. Sensation: sensory system detects a stimulus 2. Perception: the brain notices and processes a sensation (in the cortex) 3. Cognition: thinking about and interpreting what is perceived Perception-Action Coupling We perceive in order to act; act in order to perceive New actions establish new perception; new perception facilitates new modes of action Motor Development in Infancy Reflexes: involuntary, inflexible stimulus-specific actions Rooting Palmar grasping Crawling o Develops from birth to 4 months Stepping o Present at birth; however unable to support own weight until 8months - 1 year Babkin *Testing reflexes in infants is very important to monitor normal development Motor Skills -Learned abilities to move parts of the body. 3 elements: Strength Maturation Practice Gross Motor Skills: large body movements Emerge directly from reflexes Example: the crawling reflex when a baby is placed on the ground; walking or jumping Fine Motor Skills: small body movements Develop more from experience Example: hand and finger movements; tongue and jaw operation Voluntary Action Development in Infancy 0-2 Months Prereaching: arm extensions toward objects, no grasping yet Head/neck control: very little at birth 1 month- infant can hold their head with neck support; can lift their chin when prone 2-4 Months Rolling over Sit with support in lower back Lift chest off crib Visually guide reaches at end of 3 to 4 month Successful contact grasping 4-6 Months Control of lower trunk, independent sitting Manual exploration (rhythmical stereotypies) Example: when an infant hits a ball and it moves, they will continue moving their hand thinking it will make the ball continue to move 6-10 Months Hands and knees crawling Pulling their body to stand Begin using thumb in opposition to fingers 10-14 Months Standing independently Walking o Achieve upright balance, shift weight from one leg to the other o Controlled falling Body Changes: Average weight and height at birth Weight: 7.5 lbs. o Doubles by 4 month o Triples by 1 birthday o 2 years: 15-20% of adult weight (5 x birth weight) Height (length): 20 inches o 2 years: half adult height Social Factors Influencing Development 1. Nutrition o Breast milk is ideal for most babies Higher IQ? Reduce illness and obesity Breast milk has a mild anesthetic happier baby Protein-calorie malnutrition: baby isn’t getting enough calories and protein; not consuming a sufficient amount of food (At least 1 in 4 children are malnourished worldwide) Chronically malnourished babies Brains do not develop normally More prone to diseases o Marasmus o Kwashiorkor Stunting Wasting 2. Preventative Medicine o In 1900, 1 in 3 children died before age 5 in the US Now, fewer than 1 in 200 die before age 5 o Immunizations- priming the body to resist certain diseases o Better postnatal care o SIDS and sleep position 1 in 800 die (1900) 1 in 1600 die (today) 3. Sleep o The average newborn sleeps 15-17 hours a day o The average 1 year old sleeps approximately 13 hours a day 43% of adults are moderately to severely sleep deprived o Stages of Sleep: Sleep patterns are affected by birth order, diet, parenting practices, co-sleeping, REM sleep: about half for newborns Transitional sleep: half dozing/half awake Quiet sleep: increases markedly By 3 months, babies sleep deeply and have alert states Side Fact: full-term babies sleep more than pre-term babies because pre-term babies need to be fed more often they wake up more often to be fed 4. Love and Affection o Affect physical and emotional development Senses Hearing is first to develop, vision last Harlow’s study and survival Social as well as mental 2/18 Chapter 6: The First Two Years: Cognitive Development Overview: What is cognition? Piaget’s account for infant cognitive development Object permanence Language development in infancy What is Cognition? Perception: a mechanism that operates in the present to organize and interpret sensory information about current state of stimulus, allowing us to recognize meaningful objects and events. Cognition: a mechanism that operates beyond immediately perceived events, allowing us to organize events not present to the senses and coordinate memories of past with present perceptions Extending our “here and now” immediate perception by: o Storing information Creating mental images of objects o Categorizing stored information Creating classification schemes for organizing perception of events Grouping things, distinguishing things Process by which we structure our world and organize our experiences; allows us to: o Draw inferences o Plan for the future o Predict what has not yet happened o Give world interpretation Cognition is fundamentally about categories/concepts and representations Symbol Formation: the ultimate cognitive act Something that stands for something else Referential Concepts of the mind Mental structures with meaning, formed at the junction of representation and categorization Categorization 1. Perceptual –based on perceived features 2. Conceptual –based on abstract features Representation 1. Implicit –information stored in memory but unaware 2. Explicit –stored information available to awareness Symbols are formed when representation becomes explicit and categorization becomes abstract Adaptation Assimilation: taking new information and incorporating it into existing mental categories or action patterns Transforming the world to fit what you have Accommodation: taking new information to adjust, refine, or expand previous schemas Transforming what you have to fit the world Schemes Develop Through: Repetition: applied to assimilation aspects Generalization: applied to new objects/accommodation Discrimination: undergo modification, adjust to objects, differentiate *Schemes combine with one another, leading to increased objectification of the world Infant Cognitive Development -Piaget Keep in mind: -Newborn is purely perceptual -Newborns come into the world with only schemes Schemes: potential for action -By acting on world babies develop cognition First two years: -Infant moves from reactions present events The ability to hold images in their minds and solve problems mentally before acting on them/using behavior -From inability to distinguish self from the world a sense of self -From action-perception symbol formation Through the infant’s ability to perform physical operations he/she develops the ability to perform mental operations Sensorimotor Intelligence -The way infants think by using their senses and motor skills -Birth-24 months Primary circular reactions: (stages 1 and 2) infant’s responses to own body; he/she senses motion, sucking, noise, and other stimuli and tries to understand them. Stage 1 (birth-1 month) Reflexes Basic sucking, rooting, looking, grasping schemes Self/world undifferentiated Stage 2 (1-4 months) First Acquired Adaptations Reflexes modify Circular reaction –series of repetitive acts Initial response change o Then repeated, becomes a scheme Primary- focus on repeating behavior for behavior’s sake Active infant Secondary circular reactions: baby and object or person; babies respond to other people, toys, and any other object they can touch or move Stage 3 (4-8 months) Make Interesting Events Last Acts leading to effects in environment Acting to reproduce effect, making interesting sights last Greater interest in environmental consequences of actions Original act not goal directed Stage 4 (8-12 months) New Adaptation and Anticipation One scheme in service of another Goal now established from outset Able to displace goals Intentionality emerges Tertiary circular reactions: active exploration and experimentation; infants explore a range of new activities, varying their responses as a way of learning about the world. Stage 5 (12-18 months) New Means Through Active Experimentation “Little scientist stage” Repetition becomes varied Active experiments Stage 6 (18-24 months) Mental Combinations Mental trial and error Internalized symbols Some thought precedes action Deferred imitation: copying behavior that is previously experienced Object Permanence -The object concept, knowing that objects exist as separate entities, independent of our activity and perception. Recognition that self is object among objects Stages 1 and 2 o Objects indistinguishable from actions applied to them o Object is a product of effort to see o No distinction between action and its effect Stage 3 o More tuned into object o Extending search for object along a trajectory o If object hidden, infant still doesn’t know it exists Stage 4 o Searching actively for hidden objects o BUT: A-not-B Error Stage 5 o Searching where object was alst seen o BUT: when journey to hiding place is not visible, infant fails to find the object Stage 6 o Mentally represent objects and their displacements o Objects exists for infant as independent entities Stages 1 – 6: Invariant concept sequence Habituation Techniques Habituation: the process of becoming accustomed to an object or event through repeated exposure to it, thus becoming less interested. In this experiment, a bear and ball were placed on specific stands (as seen above). The child was then exposed to both objects and after he/she chose one they were switched and the child was exposed again. Results varied: New Path (first picture): extended looking time to the “new path” but not the “new goal”: it is presumed that the infant understood in action-directed terms once the objects were switched. New Goal (second picture): extended looking time to the “new goal” but not the “new path”: it is presumed that the infant understood in goal-directed terms once the objects were switched. Problems with this study -Results can easily be interpreted without recourse to infants having an understanding of other people’s goals -Goals and outcomes are not aligned, not separating accidents and trying from successful attempts Information Processing Information-processing theory: a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input connections, stored memories, and output. The environment offers many opportunities for infants to interact with whatever is perceived, each opportunity is called an affordance. Affordance: opportunities for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in an environment. Four Factors: 1. Sensory awareness 2. Immediate motivation 3. Current level of development 4. Past experiences Example: if you are lost in a new city, you want to ask someone for directions. Do you ask the first person you see? No. You scan the area and look for someone who looks approachable and knowledgeable; you seek affordance. Dynamic perception: primed to focus on movement and change People perception: a universal principle of infant perception; an innate attraction to other humans; evident in visual, auditory, and other preferences. Language Development The Universal Sequence 1. Listening and responding Infants communicate before they actually form a language Baby-directed speech: the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants and children; i.e. baby talk 2. Babbling o Experience expectant o Similar with all babies regardless of language o Even deaf babies babble 3. First words Happen at about 1 year old Naming Explosion: a sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in number of nouns (50-100 words per month) Errors in Early Language Development Underextension: too-narrow application of a word Example: an infant calls his blanket “blankie” and only his is a blanket Overextension: the application of a word beyond its true meaning Example: calling all animals “doggie” Early Grammar All the methods that languages use to communicate meaning, apart from the words themselves Holophrase: a single word used to express a complete, meaningful thought 21 months: two word sentences Example: “me up” pick me up please 24 months: three or more words, may not always have grammar correct Example: “mommy book read” read me this book mommy Mean Length of Utterance (MLU): the average number of words and meaningful sounds in a typical sentence. Often used to indicate how advanced a child’s language development is. Theories of Language Learning 1. Infants are taught o Parents are expert teachers o Frequent repetition is instructive o Well-taught well spoken 2. Infants teach themselves o Universal genetic impulse to imitate Language Acquisition Device (LAD): Chomsky’s term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and intonation. 3. Social impulses foster infant language o Social-pragmatic o Focus on emotional messages of speech instead of word choice
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