Bio Ch. 2 notes
Bio Ch. 2 notes Biol360
Cal State Fullerton
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monique Magpayo on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol360 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Maryanne Menvielle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Biology of Human Sex in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Ch 2 LECUTRE AND BOOK NOTES ∙ Female ANATOMY AND PHYSCIOLOGY ∙ ANATOMY: the study of structure. The naming, locating, and describing of them ∙ PHYSIOLOGY: the study of the function of these things ∙ We will be looking at the external reproductive reproductive structures, internal reproductive structure, and breasts. ∙ VULVA: the external female genitalia ∙ MONS PUBIS: cushion of fat dense nerves. Or refers to mountain of venus. Because of the other name mons vierness ∙ It covers the pubic symphysis ∙ Pubic hair can help prevent infection ∙ LABIA include the majora which is the outer folds of skin that is covered by pubic hair ∙ Women may have 1 or 2 set of outer skin folds ∙ The LABIA MINORA are the inner folds and meet in front to form the clitoral hood ∙ The space between is called the vestibule ∙ The INTROITUS or vaginal opening is located between the labia minoras and below the clitoris ∙ In new born girls it is covered by the hymen and can be torn through physical activity or intercourse. It may bleed and cause some pain. The most common form is the ANNULAR HYMEN which has a small hole for mentruation ∙ Theres a SEPTATE HYMEN ∙ CRIBRIFORM HYMEN ∙ The clitoris is structurally similar to the penis ∙ The glans is visible and is covered by prepuce ∙ Composed of corpus spongiosum ∙ The CLITORAL INTERNAL VIEW ∙ Which has the SHAFT – which extends inside the body and is made of corpus cavernosa tissue. ∙ The CRURA : is the extention of the clitoris and surrounds the VESTIBULAR BULBS which are made of erectile tissue which fills with blood during an erection ∙ Since they surround the opening of the vagina, when the vestibular bulbs are engorged, they increase the tightening around the penis known as penile containment ∙ URETHRAL OPENING is located between the clirotis and introitus ∙ Allows urine to exit the body ∙ The PERNEUM is the skin that is between the introitus and anus. It is very sensitive to touch and temperature ∙ During childbirth, this tissue may need to be cut or tear in a procedure called an EPISIOTOMY Anus is used in sexual activity, unlike the vagina, the anus and rectum do not provide lubrication The appearance of the vulva may change due to reproductive history of the female Vulva: virginal, nulliparous (had sex), Parous (had baby) May be altered by grooming practices: shavind, piercings, cosmetic surgery Various cultural practices female genital mutilation is also known as female circumcision INTERNAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLES Muscles underlying the vulva Includes the PC muscles enhance sexual arousal The benefits of Kegels is tone of the muscles which is helpful and easier for childbirth and helps with better orgasms and better urine control, increase tightness for sex BARTHOLINS GLANDS: small glands located on both sides of the vaginal opening They produce a small amount of fluid which is then secreted around the INTROITUS VAGINA is the muscular canal 34 in long It is composed of three stretchy layers: mucosa, muscular, fibroelastic MUCOSA layer secretes fluid that helps lubricate the vagina. Usually occurs during arousal from increased blood flow. Helps neutralize vaginal environment for the sperm and cause less friction during coitus MUSCULAR AND FIBROELASTIC allows the vagina to stretch and accommodate various sizes The inner lining of the vagina contains folds of tissue called RUGAE this aids in the process of stretching that is necessary to carry out several of the vaginal functions The distribution of nerves is unequal. The nerve endings are concentrated on the outer third of the vagina near the introitus so women don’t need deep penetration for pleasure Inner 2/3 of canal has little sensitivity An unaroused vagina, the walls collapse and are actually touching each other It is only during arousal when the area is filled with blood that the walls of the vagina will begin to separate VAGINAL ENVIRONMENT: they are highly acidic Ph 3.54 The acidic environment helps prevent infection by bacteria and fungal organisms The acidity also has an impact on the sperms ability to survive in the females reproductive tract The vagina is home to Bacterial and Fungal organisms that live in a delicate balance 2 KEY MICRO ORGANISMS (BACTERIA) LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILIS (FUNGAL) CANDIDA ALBICANS They live in balance and when it is disturbed by things like douching, contraceptives, antibiotics, blood, and semen it may cause infection FUNCTIONS OF THE VAGINA PRIMARY FEMALE ORGAN FOR INTERCOURSE PASSAGEWAY TO UTERUS FOR SPERM ROUTE FOR MENSTURAL FLOW TO LEAVE THE BODY AND IS THE BIRTH CANA GSPOT Grafenberg spot and is located on the front wall of the vagina Existence is controversial because it is not a distinct structure that can be identified in all women It may be a result of a cluster of nerves along the vaginal wall or it may be related to paraurethral glands (SKENE GLANDS) which is the leading hypothesis because these glands come from the same embryonic tissue of the male male’s prostate another reason why because stimulation of this area results of the feeling of the need to pee the paraurethral glands empty into the urethra which will coincide with this sensation UTERUS is 3 by 2 inches Usually sits at a 90 degree angle to the vagina and it also sits above the bladder which is one of the reasons why many pregnant women need to use the bathroom frequently because it puts pressure on the bladder when the baby is growing in the womb In some women the uterus is retroflex meaning that it points towards the back and it doesn’t affect fertility but may cause discomfort during pregnancy because more pressure is placed on the spine and rectum as the fetus develops UTERUS IS BROKEN UP INTO 3 AREAS FUNDUS TOP BODY CERVIX: lower third connected to the vagina Within the cervix you have the cervical OS: the opening The cervix itself secretes mucous and the mucous changed in consistency and amount during their period As her fertility increases near ovulation the cervical mucous will become friendly to sperm making pregnancy easy to obtain UTERINE LAYERS: PERIMETRIUM: outer layer that covers the uterus protecting it from the environment of the pelvic cavity MYOMETRIUM: thick muscular middle layer. It is elastic to accommodate the growth of the fetus and is very powerful The muscles in the myometrium are used in labor for the baby ENDOMETRIUM: blood riched layer of tissue in the inner layer and it sheds during menstruation. This tissue allows an embryo to implant and provides nourishment for growth OVIDUCTS: or fallopian tubes or uterine tubes and are located at the top portion of the uterus and are about 4 inches long The function of the OVIDUCTS is to transport gametes, the ovum or the egg as well as the sperm Fertilization of the egg occurs there Inside they are lined with CILIA or hair like extensions which help transport through the oviducts At the end are FIMBRIA which are extensions near the ovaries but are not actually fused with the ovaries They help move the egg away from the ovary like fingers would grabbing it and flushing the egg into the oviduct OVARIES are the female gonads and have 2 main functions o PRODUCE EGGS o RELEASE HORMONES o Key hormones are ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE o Inside the ovaries you will find PRIMARY FOLLICLES which mature into eggs o At birth the woman has all the primary follicles she will develop throughout her lifetime o It is estimated at birth we have 200,000400,000 follicles in each ovary Variation in size of BREASTS is due to the differences in the amount of fatty tissue and does not correlate to the ability of its function BREASTS have erotic and reproductive functions The main function of the breast is MILK PRODUCTION Milk is produced in the MAMMARY GLANDS and there are about 1520 lobes or or clusters of the mammary glands distributed throughout the breasts. These clusters have SEPARATE OPENINGs in the nipples so the milk may exit the breasts The mammary glands are surrounded by fatty and fibrous tissue NIPPLE is connected to the LACTIFEROUS (milk) duct that allow for the release of breast milk Surrounding the nipple is a dark skin called the AREOLA The nipple and the areola may be erect when aroused There are the same number of nerve endings in small and large breasts Smaller breasts means a higher density of nerves therefore more sensation FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ISSUES FEMALE SELF EXAMINATION: use a hand mirror and good lighting Examine the entire vulva. Looking for changes in color Any bumps Take notice of amount of discharge that occurs BREAST SELF EXAM Best time to do this is one week after your period ends During the normal cycle, hormones fluctuate which affect the breast tissue First use a mirror to check for changes, you are looking for dimpling, changes to the nipple, any discharge or redness Breasts should be viewed with your arms at your side and raised above your head Then lie down and examine the tissue, move around the breast in a circular pattern COMMON INFECTIONS VAGINITIS: inflammation of the vagina, symptoms are itching, discharge, pain May be caused by a bacterial infection, any changes to the vaginal environment or a drop of estrogen that accompanies menopause CANDIDIASIS or YEAST INFECTION which is caused by an imbalance of the vaginal environment that allow the natural candidate fungal organism to overpopulate This imbalance can be caused by birth control pills, menstruation, douching etc CYSTITIS ( urinary tract infection) the infection of the urethra and the bladder which can be caused by frequent sex A way to avoid it would be wearing cotton underwear, loose fitting pants, and to make sure that after you use the restroom you wipe front to back CANCERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYTEM BREAST: 2 most common form of cancer in women. 5 leading cause of death in women after heart disease, stroke, and lung diseases Diagnosis; breast selfexam. Look for a bump then a clinical exam and mammogram. Most of the cancer is found in the upper quadrant of the breast or behind the nipple and areola MAMMOGRAMS are a useful tool when it comes to screening for breast cancer They are x ray images of the breast tissue which is used to identify abnormal tissue in the breast Recommendation have been changing so discuss with your healthcare provider your own personal history Usually it was said to get your mammograms after the age of 40 but the current recommendation is to receive it every 2 years after the age 50 BREAST CANCER RISKS: GENETICS: BRCA1 & BRCA 2 genes. If an individual has inherited either of these genes it doesn’t mean they are 100 percent going to have cancer but a higher risk of developing it AGE: usually over the age of 50 HORMONES: if you started menstruation early or experience late menopause this increases risks. The age of the woman’s first child increases her risk of breast cancer Breast Feeding decreases risk OBESITY can increase risk ALCOHOL is a risk factor. If a woman consumes 25 alcoholic drinks, risk increases EXERCISE can decrease the chances BREAST CANCER TREATMENTS: Radiation Therapy. Radiation is targeted to the tissue to destroy cancer cells Chemotherapy which has chemical destroy cancer cells but has side effects for anemia and hair loss Hormone Therapy which can block some of the chemical signals of hormones which will usually result in the breast tissue to divide. By blocking of the hormones, it can stop the growth of these cells Surgery: RADICAL MASTECTOMY (all boobs off) or LUMPECTOMY (removal of the tumor) CERVICAL: 95% cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV Most often detected during a pap test screening Pelvic EXAM done for people over 21 or anyone sexually active and is usually yearly They look for any abnormalities in the vulva They look for discoloration, lesions, discharge, abnormal growths PAP TEST or PAP SMEAR (George Papalackanoo) A speculum is inserted and a spatula or brush collects cells from cervix Then cells are examined under a microscope CERVICAL DYSPLASIA: cellular changes in the cervical tissue but is not considered cancerous The various degrees of cancer of the cervix include: HPV, SQUAMOS CELL, SEVERE SQUAMOS CANCER TREATMENTS: Hysterectomy: removal of part of all uterus cells Chemo and radiation are other treatments ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: caner of the endometrium or the inner lining of the uterus. A common treatment for this is a HYSTERECTOMY paired with CHEMO or radiation UTERINE OVARIAN cancer: the cancer of the ovaries and a common treatment would be OOPHORECTOMY which is the removal of the ovaries and is commonly paired with radiation and chemo NONCANEROUS TUMORS: FIBROIDS common, symptomatic, may cause pain and bleeding ENDROMETRIOSIS where the endometrial tissue is present outside its normal location in the uterus, it could be located on the outside of the uterus or throughout the entire abdominal cavity including the intestines This condition is fairly common and 2025% of all women will have it at some time It can be mild and undetected to extremely severe TREATMENT includes oral contraceptives of hormones which can help reduce symptoms but not get rid of it or surgery that can remove some of the tissue PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID): an infection of the entire reproductive tract Most common cause would be an untreated STI It will effect one million women annually and it may lead to infertility ∙ o BOOK NOTESv(3050) (6065) o EXTERNAL GENITALIA: the sexual structures on the outside of the body o VULVA is a scientific term that refers to the entire external genital area in a woman. The female external genitalia o MONS VENERIS (mons) is a pad of fatty tissue covered by skin and pubic hair. It’s the frontmost component of the vulva: the mound of fatty tissue covering the pubic bone o The mons is erotically sensitive and may serve s a cushion during sex o The PUBIC hair helps vaporize odors that arise in specialized sweat glands, similar to those in armipits o These odors may act as PHEROMONES (chemical attractant) o Hair removalshaving, plucking, waxing, chemical depilation, or laser treatment can cause problems such as inflammation or infection of the hair follicles, or in case of laser treatment, alteration of skin color. o Women can lessen the likelihood of these problems by using a triple blade razor with shaving gel, shaving with the hair direction, shaving less frequently, and applying a mild hydrocortisone lotion after shaving. You may also trim the hairs o LABIA MAJORA (outer lips) are two folds of skin that extend down from the mons on either side of the vulva. Like the mons, they are padded with fatty tissue and are hairy on the surfaces nearest to the thighs. The skin of the labia majora is erotically sensitive , especially on the inner hairless sides of the labia. LABIA MAJORA IS the outer lips: fleshy skin folds, partially covered in pubic hair, that extend from the mons. o LABIA MINORA (inner lips) are two thin folds of hairless skin that lie between the two labia majora. The inner lips: thin, hairless folds of skin located between the labia majora and immediately flanking the vestibule. In some women, the labia minora is only visible after parting the labia majora. In some women it protrudes. The labia minora are amply supplied with glands, blood vessels, and nerve endings o The labia minora meet at the back and the front, where they form the CLITORAL HOOD: a loose fold of skin that covers the clitoris. o The left and right labia minora generally touch each other in the midline and the area encircled by the labia is called the VESTIBULE: the potential space between the right and left labia minora. o During sexual arousal the labia minora swell and darken as they fill with blood, a process called VASOCONGESTION.: the swelling of tissue caused by an influx of blood. o WITHIN THE VESTUBLE are 3 important structures: the clitoris, the urethral opening, the vaginal opening o 1) THE CLITORIS: is a complex organ, only a portion of which is visible. It is an erectile organ in females, whose external portion is located at the junction of the labia minora, just in front of the vestibule. o The external portion of the clitoris is the clitoral GLANS: the terminal knob of the clitoris or penis. It’s a small but highly sensitive knob of tissue positioned at the front of the vestibule o Both the shaft and the GLANS are erectile; that is , they are capable of becoming larger and firmer during sexual arousal. The shaft of the CLITORIS runs upwards from the GLANS, under the hood o The erectile tissue within the CLITORAL SHAFT consists of two CORPORA COVERNOSA (cavernous bodies) that lie side by side. o CORPUS CAVERNOSUM (CORPORA CAVERNOSA) are 2 elongated erectile structures within the clitoris or penis that also extend backward into the pelvic floor. o The erectile tissue within the glans consists of single CORPUS SPONGIOSUM (spongy body) a single midline erectile structure. In both sexes, it fills the glans. o Ointmentlike secretions from the underside of the clitoral hood lubricate the motion of the hood over the clitoris, but when these secretions dry and mix with dead cells and bacteria they form a pasty material called SMEGMA: a whitish greasy secretion that builds up under the hood of the clitoris or the foreskin of the penis. o You can remove smegma by pulling the clitoral hood back and gently washing the area with soap and warm water. o Two internal extensions of the clitoris, THE CRURA , diverge backward and downward from the clitoral shaft, giving the entire clitoris a whishbone structure. Its about 3 in long and partially enwrap the urethra.. the CRURA is the internal extension of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris or penis. o VESTIBULAR BULBS are closely associated with the clitoris, they are curves masses of erectile tissue that surrounds the vestibule and underlie the labia minora. o Like the CRURA, the VESTIBULAR BULBS are considered to be the internal portions of the clitoris. o Erections of the vestibular bulbs during sexual arousal helps to lengthen and stiffen the vagina o LABIOPLASTY is the plastic surgery to alter women’s vulvas o The CLITORIS, especially the glans, is richly supplied with sensory nerve fibers whose function is to produce sexual arousal. SO THE ONLY FUNCTION OF THE CLITORIS IS SEXUAL PLEASURE o During sexual arousal, the clitoris swells and becomes erect : the shaft of the clitoris becomes firmer and more easily felt, but the glans remain soft. This is because a layer of tough connective tissue surrounds the shaft, restricting expansion, whereas the glans is free to expand. o Cutting or removal of the clitoris is a central element in female circumcision o 2) THE URETHRAL OPENING o 3) THE VAGINAL OPENING, or INTROITUS, occupies the rear portion of the vestibule. In new born girls, the introius is usually covered by an incomplete membranous fold of skin, the HYMEN(also known as maidenhead or “cherry”) o THE INTROITUS It is the entrance to the vagina, usually covered early in life by the hymen. o In a rare condition called IMPERFORATE HYMEN this structure completely closes the introitus, leaving no opening. o It is often diagnosed at puberty, because it causes a blockage of menstrual discharge. o 3 types of FEMALE CIRCUMCISION: o SUNNAH: least invasive where the clitoral hood is incised or removed o CLITORIDECTOMY: or excision, the entire clitoral glans and shaft may be removed, along with the hood and sometimes nearby portions of the labia minora o INFIBULATION is the third procedure of pharaonic circumcision is the most invasive. It is widely practiced in SUDAN and SOMALIA,. The procedure includes clitoridectomy, but goes beyond it to include removal of the entire labia minora and the inner parts of the labia majora. o COITUS: sexual intercourse o the opening of the URETHRA is located between the vaginal opening and the clitoris. the URETHRA is the canal that conveys urine from the bladder to the urethral opening. given that the main function of the urethra is to convey urine, you might find that some women ejaculate from it during sexual climax. the PERINEUM is the erotically sensitive area between the vaginal opening and the anus Intestinal bacteria can be spread rather easily from the anus across the perineum to the vagina or urethra, possibly causing an infection PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLES: a muscular sling that underlies and supports the pelvic organs PUBOCOCCYGEUS MUSCLE: one of the more important pelvic floor muscles that form a sling around the vagina. It runs from the pubic bone in the front to the coccyx bone in the back. the steady contraction of these muscles stiffen the walls of the vagina during sex, thus increasing sexual sensations for both participants. these muscles, which contract more strongly at orgasm, increase pleasure, prevent urinary and fecal leakage, and possibly help keep semen in the vagina. the exercise to work out these muscles is called KEGELS the female REPRODUCTIVE TRACT takes the shape of a capital letter T, the stem of the T is formed by the vagina, the cervix, and the body of the uterus. the two horizontal arms of the T are formed by the oviducts, also called FALLOPIAN TUBES, whose ends are adjacent to the two ovaries. The REPRODUCTIVE TRACT serves for transport of the female’s eggs (ova) and the male’s sperm, as well as fertilization, pregnancy, and passage of the fetus during childbirth. It’s the internal anatomical structures in either sex that form the pathway taken by ova, sperm, or the conceptus. VAGINA: a muscular tube extending 3 to 4 inches from the vestibule to the uterine cervix. when a woman is not sexually excited, the vagina is collapsed to 34 inches upward and backward from the vaginal opening. Penetration of the vagina by the penis opens the vagina and constitutes COITUS or SEXUAL INTERCOURSE the VAGINA plays a role in sperm transport and (along with the cervix) FORMS THE BIRTH CANAL through which a fetus is delivered the vaginal wall is highly elastic and consists of 3 layers: 1) A THIN CELLULAR LINING, OR MUCOSA (a surface layer of cells that is lubricated by the secretions of mucous glands), the MUCOSA can be seen by parting the labia minora. when a woman is in a nonaroused state, it is a pink color. the vaginal wall has a series of folds that run around the circumference of the vagina 2) INTERMEDIATE MUSCULAR LAYER 3) OUTERMOST FIBROELASTIC LAYER the OUTER THIRD of the vagina, near the vaginal opening, has a structure different from that of the internal portion it is tighter, more muscular, and also more richly innervated than the deeper portion. thus, most of the sensation during coitusfor both partners derives from contact between the penis and this outer portion of the vagina. the vagina is normally inhabited by large numbers of “friendly” bacteria that convert sugars to lactic acid. this bacterial activity usually makes the surface of the vagina mildly acidic. (pH 4.0 to 5.0) and this helps to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria the vagina also normally contains a variety of fungal organisms, especially CANDIDA ALBICANS it sometimes happens that the fungal organisms overgrow, causing inflammation of the vaginal walls, itching, and possibly a thick white discharge, this condition is called CANDIDIASIS, vaginal thrush, or in “popular terms” a YEAST INFECTION the condition is diagnosed by microscopic examination of the discharge and is treated with antifungal medications. it does not have serious health consequences but if it comes back a lot then it cna be a sign of an underlying problem with the immune system, Candidiasis may be caused by DOUCHING may be a cause of this (the rinsing of the vagina with a stream of water or other liquid as a “cleaning” or deoderizing procedure. Gynecologists discourage douching because the vagina usually cleans itself pretty well a clear oderless vagina is normal and does not call for douching or any other treatment Depending on the time of the mesntrual cycle, the normal vaginal discharge may take on a whitish or yellowish appearance. if the discharge develops an unusual appearance or odor, however, this may be a sign of an STI or of bacterial VAGINOSIS like the labia minora, the walls of the vagina become VASOCONGESTED during sexual arousal as a result the color changes from pink to purple the color of venous blood one way researchers monitor physiological arousal in women is to place a photocell in the vagina to track this color change vasocongestion of the vagina and labia minora, combined with the contraction of musculature in the vaginal walls and erection of the vestibular bulbs. cause the vagina to wrap more tightly around the penis during coitus vasocongestion of the labia minora, facilitates motion of the clitoral hood and thus increases stimulation of the clitoris, another response of the vagina is LUBRICATION: the natural appearance of slippery secretions in the vagina during sexual arousal or the use or artificial lubricants to facilitate sexual activity the fluid is made slippery by the addition of mucus secreted by glands in the cervix it serves 2 functions 1)the lube has a near neutral pH of the nonaroused vagina. thus lubrication favors sperm survival and transport 2) LUBE makes coitus and other stimulation of the vulva easier and more pleasurable for both partners. GSPOT (GRAFENBERG SPOT) an area of increased erotic sensitivity on or deep within the front wall of the vagina it was named for a sexologist ernst grafenberg who described it in the 1950s deep pressure may feel like you need to pee but continuous pressure may stimulate arousal PARAURETHRAL GLANDS: the structural basis of the Gspot which is located between the front wall of the vagina and the urethra. they are glands situated next to the female urethra thought to be equivalent to the prostate glands in males. also known as skene’s glands the female paraurethral glands and the male prostate glands are thought to develop from the same embryonic precursors ANUS: the opening from which feces are released the anal orifice is located at the back of the perineum it is kept tightly closed most of the time by contraction of the external and internal anal sphincter muscles SPHINCTER: a circular muscle around a tube or orifice whose contraction closes the tube or orifice you can feel these sphincters by inserting your finger a short way into the anus the external sphincter is under conscious control the internal sphincter is not under voluntary control; thus it can cause problem during penetration beyond the sphincter lies the RECTUM,the lowermost portion of the gastrointestinal tract RECTUM: the final, straight portion of the large bowel. it connects to the exterior via the anus it usually empty of feces except immediately before bowel movement in women , the structure in front of the rectum is the vagina the anus and rectum are lined by mucosa, but unlike vaginal walls this surface does not provide significant amounts of lubrication the UTERUS or womb the inward continuation of the female reproductive tract beyond the vagina. the pear shaped region of the female reproductive tract through which sperm pass and where the conceptus implants and develops the narrow part of the pair: THE CERVIX the lowermost, narrow portion of the uterus that connects with the vagina a constricted openingthe OS connects the vagina to a short canal that runs through the cervix the cervical canal contains numerous glands that secrete mucus (a thick or slippery secretion) the consistency and amount of this mucus changes with the menstrual cycle, and this is why women experience vaginal discharge around the cycle. near the time of ovulation its consistency is optimal for passage of sperm through the cervix. the cervical canal opens into the cavity of the uterus proper the wall of the uterus have 3 layers that seperate the uterus from the pelvic cavity AN INNER LINING (ENDOMETRIUM) A MUSCULAR WALL (MYOMETRIUM) AND A THIN OUTER COVERING (PERIMETRIUM) the ENDOMETRIUM must switch between two reproductive functions the transport of sperm up the reproductive tract towards the site of fertilization and the implantation and nourishment of an embryo because each of these two functions require very different organization, the structure of the endometrium changes over the menstrual cycle a visible sign of this reorganization is MENSTRUATION the shedding of part of the endometrial lining and its discharge alone with some blood through the cervix and vagina MENSTRUATION: the breakdown of the endometrium at approximately monthly intervals, with consequent loss of tissue and blood from the vagina. the MYOMETRIUM is composed primarily of muscles that are not under voluntary control involuntary contractions of the Myometrium during labor play a vital role in delivery of the fetus MYOMETRIAL contractions (often perceived as menstrual cramps) and are also through to aid in the shedding and expulsion of the endometrial lining at menstruation cancer of the cervix (CERVICAL CANCER) strike about 13000 american women annually the main factor predisposing women to cervical cancer is infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) a virus that is sexually transmitted less important risk factors include chlamydia infection, smoking, and immune system dysfunction much of this reduction can be attributed to the use of regular PAP TESTS names for the pathologist George Papanicolaou who developed the test: PAP TEST is the microscopic examination of a sample of cells taken from the cervix or less commonly the anus a pap test is generally done as part of a PELVIC EXAMINATION which women have traditionally been advised to have annually IN A PELVIC EXAM: a gynecologist or other healthcare provider first inspects the vulva for external problems, and then uses a speculum to hold the walls of the vagina apart so that the vagina and cervix can be visually inspected for lesions, inflammation, or a discharge for the pap test, a spatula is inserted while the speculum is in place and a sample of cells and mucus is swabbed from the cervix. to get a sample from the cervical canal, a swab may be inserted into the cervical os the sample of cells and mucus taken from the cervix is spread on a slide and examined under a microscope if the cells show cancerous changes, the healthcare provider may proceed to a more detailed examination of the cervix using an operating microscope. this procedure is called COLPOSCOPY during this, the provider may take biopsies or destroy precancerous lesions by freezing or other methods. if a precancerous lesion escapes detection (most likely because a woman has not had a pap test in a while) it may progress to true invasive cervical cancer. symptoms of cervical cancer may include: abnormal, sometimes bloodstained vaginal discharge, pain during intercourse, or bleeding during intercourse ENDOMETRIAL CANCER often called uterine cancer is three times more common than cervical cancer, the survival rate is better for endometrial cancer. it is the cancer of the endometrium of the uterus a diagnosis is usually made on the basis of cells or tissue removed from the uterus except for the earliest stage of cervical cancers, cancers affecting the uterus are usually treated by the removal of the entire organ (HYSTERECTOMY) sometimes other pelvic organs such as oviducts and ovaries also have to be removed depending on how advanced the disease is. several noncancerous conditions are much more common than uterine cancer FIBROIDS: noncancerous tumors of smooth muscle that grow within or outside the uterus . they can cause pain and abnormal sometimes heavy bleeding but they are often asymptomatic when fibroids do cause symptoms they can be removed surgically or destroyed by blockage of the arteries that supply them with blood. ENDOMETRIOSIS is the growth of endometrial tissue at abnormal locations within the pelvic cavity, such as on the oviducts, the ovaries, or the outside of the uterus it is believed that these patches of endometrial tissue are derived from cells in the menstrual discharge that pass backward up the oviducts into the pelvic cavity the most common symptom of ENDOMETRIOSIS is pelvic pain; this pain may be worse before or during the menstrual period or at the time of ovulation, or it may be ongoing. endometriosis can cause infertility and there is no simple cure for this condition. sometimes the patches can be removed surgically PROLAPSE is a downward sagging of the uterus into the vagina. it is caused by weakening of the ligaments that support the uterus and of the muscles of the pelvic floor obesity and smoking are also risk factors uterine prolapse may be treated by a variety of surgical techniques or by insertion of a plastic ring that keeps the uterus in place, kegals help problems with the uterus or other pelvic organs can often be detected with two handed pelvic examination the healthcare provider places two fingers of one hand in the vagina while pressing down on the womans abdominal wall with the other hand in a premenopausal woman hysterectomy puts an end to mentruation and renders the woman infertile at the upper end of the uterus, the reproductive tract divides into two symmuetrical branches, the oviducts, also called fallopian tubes fertilization of an ovum by a sperm takes place in the outer third of an oviduct the interior surface of the oviducts is lined with CILIA, microscopic hairlike structures that wave in a coordinated fashion towards the uterus sperm moving from the uterus toward the ovary have to swim against the current set up by beating cilia, the portion of each oviduct near the uterus is relatively narrow but it widens somewhat as it nears the ovary the oviduct ends in a flared opening with a fringe or FIMBRIA composed of finger like extensions each fimbira lies near but isnot actually fused with the ovary on that side of the body like the rest of the oviducts, the fimbrae are lined with cilia that help draw the ovum into the oviduct a continuous pathway extends from the outside of the woman’s body up her reproductive tract, and into the pelvic cavity the body has mechanisms to prevent disease causing organisms to migrate up this pathway for example, the presence of mucus in the cervix acts like a plug, hindering the passage of microorganisms. in some circumstances, however, sexually transmitted organisms can migrate part or all of the way up the pathway, causing inflammation in the reproductive tract or even within the pelvic cavity: this is known as PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID) the OVARIES a woman’s gonads are paired organs located on either side of the uterus they are egg shapes structures measuring from about 1 to 1.5 inches long the OVARY is the female gonad; the organ that produces ova and secretes sex hormones FOLLICLES: a fluid filled sac that contains an egg (ovum) with its supporting cells, within the ovary the ovaries have two distinct functionsL 1) to release the OVA from an ovary in a process called OVULATION by puberty a woman has about 200,000 ova in each ovary one mature ovum is released per menstrual cycle ovulation occurs when an ovary’s walls ruptures and releases an ovum and its surrounding cells the fimbria of the nearby oviduct catches the ovum, and cilia propel into the oviduct, where fertilization may occur if sperm are present 2) the second function of the ovaries is the production and secretion of SEX HORMONES these sex hormones regulate the monthly menstrual cycle the ovarian hormones are mostly sex steroids, which are fatty compounds derived from cholesterol SEX STEROID is any of the steroid hormones that are active in sexual and reproductive processes the sex steroid come in three classes ESTROGENS(of which the main representative is estradiol): any of a class of steroids the most important being estradiol that promote the development of female secondary sexual characterisitics at puberty and that have many other functions in both sexes PROGESTINS: (main rep progesterone a steroid hormone secreted by the ovary and the placentia; it is necessary for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy) that cause the endometrium to proliferate and help maintain pregnancy ANDROGENS (main rep: testosterone the principal androgen, synthesized in the testicles and in lesser amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands) that promote male sexual development and that have a variety of other functions in both sexes MENARCHE the onset of menstruation at puberty The hypothamalus (a small region at the base of the brain; it contains cells involved in sexual responses and other basic functions) in the brain sends signals to the pituitary gland. In response to this the pituitary releases FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE) –one of the two major gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary gland; it promotes maturation of the ova (or sperm in males) and LH (LUTEINIZING HORMONE) one of the two major gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary gland; it triggers ovulation and promotes the secretion of sex steroids by the ovaries (or testicles) That affect the ovaries At different times in the menstrual cycle that ovaries produce various mixes of estrogens, progestins, and androgens,. These affect the uterus, breasts, and other organs differently across the cycle GONADOTOPINS: hormones that regulate the function of the gonads OVARIAN CYSTS (fluid filled sacs) cysts within the ovary It can be a sign of cancer and in women of reproductive age, the cysts are usually normal ovarian folliciles that have not yet ovulated or have grown larger than usual POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS) is a common but poorly understood condition marked by excessive secretion of androgens by the ovaries The condition may cause irregular menstruation, infertility, and male like pattern of facial and body hair. It is not curable but most symptoms can be controlled with drugs Pg 6065 The breasts of MAMMARY GLANDS are considered SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICSantaomical characteristics, such as breasts and faciahairl hair, and that generally differ between the sexes but are not used to define an individual’s sex The breast tissue lies between the skin and the muscles of the chest wall Each breast consists of about 1520 LOBES that are separated from one another by fibrous and fatty tissue The functional units of the breasts are microscopic sacs called ALVEOLI each alveolus is lined by glandular cells that secrete milk into its central cavity. Milk leaving the alveolus travels down the ducts that connect at the nipple Each nipple is situated at the tip of the breast in the center of a circular patch of darker skin known as an areola The nipples are capable of erection in response to sexual arousal , tactile stimulation, or cold. ERECTION is caused by contraction of smooth muscles beneath the nipple, which push the nipple outward Variation in breast size is due largely to differences in the amount of fatty tissue in the breast; women with small breasts have adequate glandular tissue to breast feed an infant MASTECTOMY Surgical removal of breasts to help with breast cancer FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER: GENES, AGE , REPRODUCTIVE HISTORY , ALCOHOL OBESITY EXERCISE MEDICAL HISTORY HORMONES Women who are especially high risk in particular those who have a mutation of the BRCA2 gene have the option of taking tamoxifen or raloxifene: either of these drugs provides partial protection against breast cancer MAMMOGRAPHY is a breast cancer screening technique that uses low dose x rays to image the soft tissues of the breast PROSTHESIS: an artificial replacement for a body part She can also have reconstructive surgery Breast cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women;
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