Week 5 Health Psychology Notes
Week 5 Health Psychology Notes Psyc 400
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Riley on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 400 at Humboldt State University taught by Carrie Aigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Week 5 Class Notes Tuesday, 16 February 2016 Environmental Stress and Daily Hassles: I. Stress accumulates in your body from numerous environmental sources and can cause illness II. Stress and the Physical Environment a. Pollution, noise, over-crowding all can contribute to stress i. Lack of green-space ii. No space to walk around b. People living in poverty are more likely to experience these stressors i. Because they tend to live in crowded areas III. Restorative Effects of Nature a. Spending time in nature results in lower Blood Pressure and reduced stress response i. Improves mood b. Nature walks (compared to city walks) produce enhanced directed attention on formal tests c. Studies show that patients with views of green space seem to heal or get healthier quicker than those without IV. Why the modern world is bad for your brain a. Multi-tasking leads to increased cortisol and adrenaline i. It is not actually affective in getting things done ii. Efficiency comes from doing one thing at a time b. Spikes in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens in the brain when we check email, send/receive text i. “hyperimmediacy’ is novelty-seeking 1. Need to respond immediately 2. Nucleus accumbens = reward center of the brain 3. Hits from hyperimmediacy and multitasking actually seem to lead to higher levels of stress c. Study of rats and electrical stimulation of nucleus accumbens Stress and Health: I. Coping Styles a. Problem-focused coping i. Planning, taking steps to solve a problem b. Emotion-focused coping i. Managing stress emotions c. Coping examples i. Situation: your exam is next week and you haven’t studies Problem-focused Emotion-focused Make study schedule Call friend and talk about stress and anxiety you are feeling Ask friend for help in Vent to our mom understanding difficult concepts Go to professor’s office hours Take a bubble bath to relax d. Analysis of coping strategies i. Problem focused coping is generally better 1. Problem focused positive association with good health 2. Emotion focused negative associated with good health 3. Discussion Point: When might emotion-focused be better? Why? a. Bad thing has already happened, and you are still stressing out about it. i. There is not a lot that can be done about it so there is no real way to solve a problem 1. Therefore, handling the emotion could be the focus of coping with stress II. Managing Stress a. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) i. Used to treat anxiety and depression ii. Based on idea that our cognitions can impact our emotions and behavior (and vice versa) 1. Thoughts, feelings and behavior all interact with each other iii. Helps people to reframe problematic (maladaptive) cognitions 1. Challenge some of their thoughts that they are having 2. Challenge you to replace the maladaptive thoughts and behaviors iv. CBT: Maladaptive thought example Situation: As you walk down the street, someone you know walks by, without acknowledging you. Maladaptive Adaptive Thoughts: He ignored me. He He was in a hurry doesn’t like me and just didn’t see me. Emotion: Upset Don’t mind Physical: Tight check, hot None cheeks Behavior: May ignore him next Shrug-off; continue time on v. Other component of CBT 1. Learn about interactions of thought, feeling, and behaviors 2. Challenge maladaptive thoughts 3. Relaxation and coping strategies 4. Stress inoculation training a. Work with therapist on little stressors to be prepared for larger stressors in life b. Time-limited CBT i. Integrates ii. Useful in medical setting, where brief interventions are valued 1. Sometimes as brief as 2-4 sessions for mild anxiety or depressive symptoms c. CBT has equal effectiveness to pharmaceutical drugs in Short Term, but surpasses in Long Term i. Discussion Point: Why might this be? 1. In therapy you get tools for coping 2. Years down the year, you will probably be doing better on your own than the person who was just on the medications III. Mindfulness Meditation a. Roots in Buddhism and Tibetan meditation b. Form practiced today in psychology was developed by psychologists (Jack Kornfield and others) who entered monastic training in Asia c. Often used for anxiety, trauma and PTSD d. Basic Idea i. Don’t fight the anxiety, observe its presence and let it pass e. Different from CBT in that it doesn’t emphasize change IV. Relaxation: Diaphragmatic Breathing a. Normal Breathing – short, shallow breaths i. Associated with stress and anxiety ii. We do not even realize we are breathing out of our chest b. Diaphragmatic breathing- full, even breath i. Associated with relaxation ii. By doing this you can change the body physiology 1. Helps to calm you from anxiety, etc. 2. When inhaling the diaphragm is pushed down, the lungs fill, and the stomach (just under the rib cage) protrudes. Thursday, 18 February 2016 Stress and Health Continued: V. Progressive Muscle Relaxation a. We Carry tension in our muscles b. PMR helps us to identify and release this tension c. Example: i. Attend to you facial muscles ii. Do you notice tension? Relaxed Not relaxed Mouth Lips parted Lips closed; teeth clenched Shoulders Dropped, resting Hunched Hands Resting at sides; Fingers clenched; fingers slightly gripping curled iii. To see real benefits it is recommended to have about 10 sessions with an instructors 1. A full session would go through all of the muscle groups in your body VI. Emotional Disclosure a. Ways to get out your feeling: i. Catharsis – verbal expression of emotion, “venting” ii. Emotional Disclosure – Expression of emotion and the events that precipitated the emotion 1. Writing about it 2. Talking about it 3. More controlled and thoughtful b. Which works better? i. Evidence shows that Catharsis actually increases the emotions you are trying to let out ii. Emotional Disclosure works better 1. People report less stress and improved mood after c. Pennebaker’s Emotional Disclosure (Expressive Writing) i. Procedure: Write expressively about a traumatic or stressful event, usually for several sessions 1. Writing stream of consciousness ii. Found to relate to several health outcomes including 1. Improved immune functioning 2. Less anxiety levels 3. Improved stress levels 4. Fewer physician visits 5. Fewer physical symptoms iii. Linguistic analysis revealed that the use of emotion words and, especially, insight words benefit most 1. Emotion words: angry, disappointed, encouraged 2. Insight words: realize, discover, understand 3. They are processing the events and emotions when they write using these kinds of words. d. Meta-analysis of experimental disclosure i. 146 studies of experimental disclosure ii. Found overall effect on health and well-being of 0.075 iii. Greater umber of sessions and greater length of sessions were related to greater effect iv. Writing in privacy had larger effect Stress and Disease: What are some ways stress relates to health? o lowers ability of immune system to fight diseases o linked to cardiovascular disease due to increased blood pressure o Relates to diabetes in how our bodies process sugars o increases likelihood of § over eating § drug use § insomnia § etc. I. Psychoneuroimmunology a. Field of study that focuses on the interaction of behavior, neuroendocrine system and immune system b. Solomon (1964) found that immune system could be influences by classical conditioning c. Classical Conditioning: The Classic Example i. Pavlov’s Dogs 1. Unconditioned Stimulus: Food à Unconditioned Reaction: Salivation 2. Neutral Stimulus: Bell paired with Unconditioned Stimulus: Food 3. Conditioned Stimulus: Bell à Conditioned Response: Salivation d. Classical Conditioning and Immune Function i. UCS: Drug à UCR: Suppressed Immune Function ii. NS: Sugar Solution paired with UCS: Drug iii. CS: Sugar Solution à CR: Suppressed Immune Function iv. This was a surprising finding e. How does stress influence immune function? i. Cortisol depressed immune function 1. Slows phagocytosis a. The attacking of foreign particles by the immune system b. Immune system gets less efficient ii. Stress can alter health-related behaviors that can in turn, result in suppressed immune function 1. Smoking 2. Drinking 3. Poor Sleep 4. Medication adherence II. Psychoneuroimmunology Applied a. Immune suppression occurs when stress is chronic and persisting b. Kiecolt-Glaser i. Students experienced immunosuppression during the time of final exams 1. Demonstrated by lower level of natural killer (NK) cells, which fights tumors and infections c. Suppressed immune function usually worse among students with high anxiety and poor coping skills d. Other Findings: i. Marital conflict can lead to slower wound healing ii. People with higher levels of support will heal faster iii. Caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s experience slower wound healing and lowered immune function III.Role of Coping a. Stressors alone don’t tell the full story b. Our ability to cope with stress determines who is at highest risk IV.Stress and Depression a. Major Stress event increases risk for depression i. About 25% of those who have major stress event will develop depression in the next few months b. Stress also inhibits recovery i. Longer duration = greater severity of depressive episode c. Major life stress may sensitize people to depression d. Higher risk for people with genetic vulnerability to depression e. Certain cognitive and coping styles may make people more prone to both stress and depression i. EX: 1. Rumination, 2. Negative thinking V. Stress and the Common Cold a. Sheldon Cohen and Colleagues (2005) i. Exposed people to cold virus ii. People with higher stress were more likely to become ill 1. Duration of stressor important a. Chronic stress = > One month i. Led to development of cold b. Acute = < One month i. Did not lead to development of cold Bold Book Terms: Chapter Five: 1. Acetylcholine – One of the major neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system 2. Adrenal Cortex – The outer layer of the adrenal gland; secretes glucocorticoids 3. Adrenal Glands – Endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete hormones and affect metabolism 4. Adrenal Medulla – The inner layer of the adrenal glands; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine 5. Adrenocortical Response – The response of the adrenal cortex, prompted by ACTH, that results in the release of glucocorticoids, including cortisol 6. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) – A hormone produced by the anterior portion of the pituitary gland that acts on the adrenal gland and is involved in the stress response 7. Adrenomedullary Response – The response of the adrenal medulla, prompted by sympathetic nervous system activation, that results in the release of epinephrine 8. Alarm Reaction – The first stage of the general adaption syndrome (GAS), in which the body’s defenses are mobilized against a stressor 9. Allostasis – The concept that different circumstances require different levels of physiological activation 10. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – The part of the peripheral nervous system that primarily serves internal organs 11. Catecholamines – A class of chemicals containing epinephrine and norepinephrine 12. Catharsis – The spoken or written expression of strong negative emotion, which may result in improvement in physiological or psychological health 13. Central Nervous System (CNS) – All the neurons within the brain and spinal cord 14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – A type of therapy that aims to develop beliefs, attitudes, thoughts, and skills to make positive changes in behavior 15. Coping – Strategies that individuals use to manage the distressing problems and emotions in their lives 16. Cortisol – A type of glucocorticoid that provides a natural defense against inflammation and regulates carbohydrate metabolism 17. Crowding – A person’s perception of discomfort in a high-density environment 18. Daily Hassles – Everyday events that people experience as harmful, threatening, or annoying 19. Emotion-Focused Coping – Coping strategies oriented toward managing the emotions that accompany the perception of stress 20. Emotional Disclosure – A therapeutic technique whereby people express their strong emotions by talking or writing about the events that precipitated them 21. Endocrine System – The system of the body consisting of ductless glands 22. Epinephrine – Naturally occurring neurochemicals whose effects resemble those of the opiates 23. Exhaustion Stage – The final stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), in which the body’s ability to resist a stressor has been depleted 24. General Adaption Syndrome (GAS) – The body’s generalized attempt to defend itself against stress; consists of alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion 25. Hormones – Chemical substances released into the blood and having effects on other parts of the body 26. Life Events – Major events in a person’s life that require change or adaptation 27. Neurons – Nerve Cells 28. Neuroendocrine System – Those endocrine glands that are controlled by and interact with the nervous system 29. Neurotransmitters – Chemicals that are released by neurons and that affect the activity of other neurons 30. Norepinephrine – One of two major neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system 31. Parasympathetic Nervous System – A division of the autonomic nervous system that promotes relaxation and functions under normal, non-stressful conditions 32. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – The nerves that lie outside the brain and the spinal cord 33. Personal Control – Confidence that people have in their ability to control events that shape their lives 34. Pituitary Gland – An endocrine gland that lies within the brain and whose secretions regulate many other glands 35. Population Density – A physical condition in which a large population occupies a limited space 36. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) – An anxiety disorder caused by experience with an extremely traumatic event and characterized by recurrent and intrusive re-experiencing of the event 37. Primary Appraisal – One’s initial appraisal of a potentially stressful event (Lazarus and Folkman) 38. Problem-Focused Coping – Coping strategies aims at changing the source of the stress 39. Reappraisal – One’s nearly constant re-evaluation of stressful event (Lazarus and Folkman) 40. Resistance Stage – The second stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), in which the body adapts to a stressor 41. Secondary Appraisal – One’s perceived ability to control or cope with harm, threat, or challenge (Lazarus & Folkman) 42. Somatic Nervous System – The part of the PNS that serves the skin and voluntary muscles 43. Social Contacts – Number and kinds of people with whom one associates; members of one’s social networks 44. Social Isolation – The absence of specific role relationships 45. Social Networks – Number and kinds of people with whom one associates; social contacts 46. Social Support – Both tangible and intangible support a person receives from other people 47. Sympathetic Nervous System – A division of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body’s resources in emergency, stressful, and emotional situations 48. Synaptic Cleft – The space between neurons 49. Urban Press – The many environmental stressors that affect city living including noise, crowding, crime, and pollution Chapter Six: 1. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – an immune deficiency caused by viral infection and resulting in vulnerability to a wide range of bacterial, viral, and malignant diseases 2. Agoraphobia – and anxiety state characterized by fear about or avoidance of places or situations from which escape might be difficult 3. Allergies – and immune system response characterized by an abnormal reaction to a foreign substance 4. Antibodies – protein substances produced in response to specific invader or antigen, marking it for destruction and thus creating community to the invader 5. Antigens – substances that provoke the immune system to produce antibodies 6. Asthma – A chronic disease that causes constriction of the bronchial tubes preventing air from passing freely and causing wheezing and difficulty breathing during attacks 7. Autoimmune Diseases – disorders that occur as a result of the immune system’s failure to differentiate between body cells and foreign cells, resulting in the bodies attack and destruction of it’s own self 8. B-Cells – A variety of lymphocytes that attack invading organisms 9. Cytokines – Chemical messengers secreted by cells in the immune system forming a communication link between the nervous and immune systems 10. Diabetes Mellitus – A disorder caused by insulin deficiency 11. Diathesis-stress model – A theory of stress that suggests that some individuals are vulnerable to stress related illnesses because they are genetically predisposed to those illnesses 12. Granulocytes – A type of lymphocyte that acts rapidly to kill invading organisms 13. Humoral Immunity – Immunity created through the process of exposure to antigens and production of antibodies in the bloodstream 14. Immunity – A response to foreign microorganisms that occurs with repeated exposure and results and resistance to a disease 15. Inflammation – A general immune system response that works to restore damaged tissue 16. Lymph – tissue fluid that has entered a lymphatic vessel 17. Lymph Node – small nodules of an fatty tissue spaced throughout the lymphatic system that helps clean lymph of debris 18. Lymphatic System – A system that transports lymphs through the body 19. Lymphocyte – White blood cells found in lymph that are involved in the immune function 20. Macrophage – A type of lymphocyte that attacks invading organisms 21. Natural Killer (NK) Cells – A type of lymphocyte that attacks invading organisms 22. Phagocytosis – the process of engulfing and killing foreign particles 23. Plasma Cells – Cells, derived from B-cells, that secrete antibodies 24. Proinflammatory Cytokines – A chemical secreted by the immune system that promotes information and is associated with feelings of sickness, depression, and social withdrawal 25. Psychoneuroimmunology – A multidisciplinary field that focuses on the interactions among behavior, the nervous system, endocrine system, and the immune system 26. Rheumatoid Arthritis – and autoimmune disorder characterized by dull ache within or around a joint 27. Spleen – A large Oregon near the stomach that serves as a repository for lymphocytes and red blood cells 28. T-Cells – The cells of the immune system that produce immunity 29. Thymosin – A hormone produced by the thymus 30. Thymus – An organ located near the heart that secretes thymosin and thus processes and activates T-Cells 31. Tonsils – Masses of lymphatic tissue located in the pharynx 32. Vaccination – A method of inducing immunity in which a weakened form of a virus or bacterium is introduced into the body
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