American Revolutions Week 6
American Revolutions Week 6 HIST 0848-002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
February 16, 2016 Background on the Civil Rights Movement: Slavery Premodern slavery o Prisoners of war, religious differences New world slavery o Pseudoscientific racism o Lifelong condition o Slaves as commodities, producing commodities th th Between 1015 million slaves transported to North America between 17 and 19 centuries—Brazil and Caribbean were huge targets due to the sugar industries there. 30% survived the route. Of the 1015 million, only 30% survived the forced migration to the Americas Slavery in the US o Codification of slavery during the 17 and 18 centuries o Protected by the constitution (i.e. 3/5ths clause) Fugitive Slave Clause o Article IV, section 2, clause 3 o If you’re a slave and escape into a territory that has no slavery, you must be returned to your owner. Gradual emancipation in the Northern states Slavery is the main cause for southern secession and the civil war Alexander Stephens, Cornerstone Speech, 1861 o “Our new government is founded upon…the great truth, that the Negro that is not equal to the white man; subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition.” Emancipation o Emancipation Proclamation, 1863 o Runawth slaves (25% of slave population) o 13 amendment, 1865 o This is an executive order Reconstruction o Effort to rebuild the US after the Civil War, and carved a place for African Americans in US society o Political developments Freedmen’s Bureau Act, 1865 Civil Rights Act, 1866 Political Developments: o 14 amendment: anyone born in the US is a citizen, regardless of race th o 15 amendment: Restraints o Black codes o Ku Klux Klan o Sharecropping Redemption Era o Violence and lynching’s o “Lost cause” myth Memorialization White reconciliation African American Politics o Collective organizations National association for the advancement of colored people, 1909 o Political flexibility o Plessey v. Ferguson (1896) formalizes segregation The Great Migration o World war I industrial jobs lure 500,000 African Americans to north and west o Moved into jobs at the bottom of the pay scale: factory hands, janitors, domestic help o Northern Racism—not institutionalized, but very present Housing was scarce and overcrowded Whites were often discriminatory and hostile Harlem Renaissance o Distinctive African American culture and life developed in the 1920’s o Marked by a deep sense of racial difference and pride o Celebrates and explores the nature of American blackness in 1920s US, and its origins in Africa o Development was increasingly militant Second KKK o Refounded in 1915 o Targeted blacks, Jews, roman Catholics, immigrants, communists, unions, religious liberalism, big business, women’s rights, new consumerism, and change in general o 35 million members at its peak o Discredited in the late 1920’s February 18, 2016 US= United States, AA= African American New Deal o New deal advocates also subscribed to the racial notion that America ought to maximize the opportunities for its “racial superiors” o AA’s received lower relief payment, paid less in government program jobs like the Works Progress Administration o “Breadwinner” model disadvantages nonwhites The Popular Front In the 1930s and early 40s, AA activists very often worked together with white laborers o Concept that their problems of race and low class were intrinsically related African American activists, progressive New Dealers, labor union representatives, and black and white radicals Focus on biracial cooperation Popular front goals Enfranchise large sections of working class and AA voters Challenge racial discrimination in courts, and in state and local legislature o Thurgood Marshall, NAACP’s legal defense and educational fund o Attack Plessey vs. Ferguson by insisting on its literal interpretation in education NAACP Supreme Court Victories o Smith v. Allwright (1944): outlawed whites only primaries by the democratic party o Morgan v. Virginia (46) struck down segregation in interstate bus transportation o Shelley v. Kraemer (48): racially restrictive covenants could not legally be enforced through the US federal government World War II o New AA urbanization o “Double V” (double victory) Against Nazism abroad, and segregation at home Postwar Discrimination o Army, gov’t, most of south is segregated o Returning black veterans faced extreme violence in the South for no longer displaying the proper submissiveness to white dominance February 1946: Isaac Woodward July 1946: lynching of 4 African Americans International Attention Grows o Third world, European, Communist newspapers all report on US race problems (at times very heavy criticism) o US gov’t worries race will provide an “Achilles hill” for soviet union o Discrimination of nonwhite foreign nationals, esp. diplomats and government officials, while in the US o Result: civil rights activists have very effective pressure point UN commission on Human Rights, 1946: NAACP files petition against the US Third Part of AA Activism in 1940’s o Feared toward highlighting unjust US segregation, presenting it to the rest of the world o Newspapers o Interviews o UN petitions US Federal Government o US leaders cannot eradicate conditions, but can place them “in context” o Rehabilitating the moral character of US democracy becomes a central focus of Cold War Diplomacy o How: propaganda Information Dissemination o United states information agency pamphlet “The Negro in American Life” Openness about slavery, rosy picture of what has been achieved Emphasis on gradual and progressive social change through education and electoral policy participation o AA’s compare South to totalitarian states: poverty, statesponsored repression US government emphasizes that the south is part of the republic, growing movement against racism Further Government Actions o US government funds trips by African Americans abroad who spread the same message Jazz diplomatic tours Sponsor exchange programs (can backfire if colored aliens experience discrimination) o Government stops critics directly Confiscates passports (Paul Robeson, W.E.B DuBois) Brand critics as communists Civil rights reform was in part a product of the cold war The need to address international criticism gave the American federal government an incentive to promote social change at home The cold war framed, but also limited the nation’s civil rights commitment Anticommunism left only a very narrow space for criticism of the status quo. o The cold war led to a narrowing of the acceptable civil rights discourse Cold War Civil Rights o 1946: Harry Truman creates a biracial organization, the President’s Committee on Civil Rights Reform o 48 Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Services o 48 Executive Order 9980: Policy of “fair employment throughout the federal establishment” created the employment board of the civil service commission. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) o Truman Administration, especially the justice Department, heavily involved in court cases leading up to Brown vs. Board of Ed. o Case which incorporated school desegregation cases from several states (Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, District of Columbia) o Thurgood Marshall argued the case before the Supreme Court o Leading sociologists and psychologists argue that segregation by race was inherently unequal, and a denial of equal protection under the law as th guarantee by the 14 amendment o Unanimous supreme court decision: segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even if the facilities are equal, deprived children of the minority of equal educational opportunities o Cited George Kennan and his containment policy as background for their case justifications Questions to consider: o How did cold war ideology change the civil rights movement? o How and why did the US federal government become involved in civil rights?
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