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American Revolutions Week 6

by: Katrina Salamon

American Revolutions Week 6 HIST 0848-002

Marketplace > Temple University > History > HIST 0848-002 > American Revolutions Week 6
Katrina Salamon

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These are the notes for week 6 of American Revolutions
American Revolutions
Silke Zoller
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
February 16, 2016 Background on the Civil Rights Movement: Slavery  Pre­modern slavery o Prisoners of war, religious differences  New world slavery o Pseudo­scientific racism o Lifelong condition o Slaves as commodities, producing commodities th th  Between 10­15 million slaves transported to North America between 17  and 19   centuries—Brazil and Caribbean were huge targets due to the sugar industries  there. 30% survived the route.   Of the 10­15 million, only 30% survived the forced migration to the Americas   Slavery in the US o Codification of slavery during the 17  and 18  centuries o Protected by the constitution (i.e. 3/5ths clause)  Fugitive Slave Clause o Article IV, section 2, clause 3 o If you’re a slave and escape into a territory that has no slavery, you must  be returned to your owner.   Gradual emancipation in the Northern states  Slavery is the main cause for southern secession and the civil war  Alexander Stephens, Cornerstone Speech, 1861 o “Our new government is founded upon…the great truth, that the Negro  that is not equal to the white man; subordination to the superior race is his  natural and normal condition.”  Emancipation  o Emancipation Proclamation, 1863 o Runawth slaves (25% of slave population) o 13  amendment, 1865 o This is an executive order  Reconstruction o Effort to rebuild the US after the Civil War, and carved a place for African Americans in US society o Political developments  Freedmen’s Bureau Act, 1865  Civil Rights Act, 1866  Political Developments: o 14  amendment: anyone born in the US is a citizen, regardless of race th o 15  amendment:   Restraints o Black codes o Ku Klux Klan o Sharecropping  Redemption Era o Violence and lynching’s o “Lost cause” myth  Memorialization   White reconciliation   African American Politics o Collective organizations  National association for the advancement of colored people, 1909 o Political flexibility o Plessey v. Ferguson (1896) formalizes segregation   The Great Migration o World war I industrial jobs lure 500,000 African Americans to north and  west o Moved into jobs at the bottom of the pay scale: factory hands, janitors,  domestic help o Northern Racism—not institutionalized, but very present  Housing was scarce and overcrowded  Whites were often discriminatory and hostile   Harlem Renaissance o Distinctive African American culture and life developed in the 1920’s o Marked by a deep sense of racial difference and pride o Celebrates and explores the nature of American blackness in 1920s US,  and its origins in Africa o Development was increasingly militant   Second KKK o Re­founded in 1915 o Targeted blacks, Jews, roman Catholics, immigrants, communists, unions,  religious liberalism, big business, women’s rights, new consumerism, and  change in general o 3­5 million members at its peak o Discredited in the late 1920’s February 18, 2016 US= United States, AA= African American   New Deal o New deal advocates also subscribed to the racial notion that America  ought to maximize the opportunities for its “racial superiors” o AA’s received lower relief payment, paid less in government program jobs like the Works Progress Administration o “Breadwinner” model disadvantages non­whites The Popular Front   In the 1930s and early 40s, AA activists very often worked together with white  laborers o Concept that their problems of race and low class were intrinsically related  African American activists, progressive New Dealers, labor union representatives, and black and white radicals  Focus on biracial cooperation  Popular front goals  Enfranchise large sections of working class and AA voters  Challenge racial discrimination in courts, and in state and local legislature o Thurgood Marshall, NAACP’s legal defense and educational fund o Attack Plessey vs. Ferguson by insisting on its literal interpretation in  education   NAACP Supreme Court Victories o Smith v. Allwright (1944): outlawed whites only primaries by the  democratic party  o Morgan v. Virginia (46) struck down segregation in interstate bus  transportation o Shelley v. Kraemer (48): racially restrictive covenants could not legally be  enforced through the US federal government   World War II o New AA urbanization  o “Double V” (double victory)  Against Nazism abroad, and segregation at home   Postwar Discrimination  o Army, gov’t, most of south is segregated o Returning black veterans faced extreme violence in the South for no  longer displaying the proper submissiveness to white dominance  February 1946: Isaac Woodward  July 1946: lynching of 4 African Americans   International Attention Grows o Third world, European, Communist newspapers all report on US race  problems (at times very heavy criticism) o US gov’t worries race will provide an “Achilles hill” for soviet union o Discrimination of nonwhite foreign nationals, esp. diplomats and  government officials, while in the US o Result: civil rights activists have very effective pressure point  UN commission on Human Rights, 1946: NAACP files petition  against the US  Third Part of AA Activism in 1940’s o Feared toward highlighting unjust US segregation, presenting it to the rest  of the world o Newspapers o Interviews o UN petitions  US Federal Government o US leaders cannot eradicate conditions, but can place them “in context” o Rehabilitating the moral character of US democracy becomes a central  focus of Cold War Diplomacy o How: propaganda  Information Dissemination o United states information agency pamphlet “The Negro in American Life”  Openness about slavery, rosy picture of what has been achieved  Emphasis on gradual and progressive social change through  education and electoral policy participation o AA’s compare South to totalitarian states: poverty, state­sponsored  repression  US government emphasizes that the south is part of the republic,  growing movement against racism   Further Government Actions o US government funds trips by African Americans abroad who spread the  same message  Jazz diplomatic tours  Sponsor exchange programs (can backfire if colored aliens  experience discrimination) o Government stops critics directly  Confiscates passports (Paul Robeson, W.E.B DuBois)  Brand critics as communists   Civil rights reform was in part a product of the cold war  The need to address international criticism gave the American federal government  an incentive to promote social change at home  The cold war framed, but also limited the nation’s civil rights commitment  Anticommunism left only a very narrow space for criticism of the status quo.  o The cold war led to a narrowing of the acceptable civil rights discourse   Cold War Civil Rights o 1946: Harry Truman creates a biracial organization, the President’s  Committee on Civil Rights Reform o 48 Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Services o 48 Executive Order 9980: Policy of “fair employment throughout the  federal establishment” created the employment board of the civil service  commission.   Brown v. Board of Education (1954) o Truman Administration, especially the justice Department, heavily  involved in court cases leading up to Brown vs. Board of Ed. o Case which incorporated school desegregation cases from several states  (Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, District of Columbia) o Thurgood Marshall argued the case before the Supreme Court o Leading sociologists and psychologists argue that segregation by race was  inherently unequal, and a denial of equal protection under the law as  th guarantee by the 14  amendment o Unanimous supreme court decision: segregation of children in public  schools solely on the basis of race, even if the facilities are equal, deprived children of the minority of equal educational opportunities o Cited George Kennan and his containment policy as background for their  case justifications  Questions to consider: o How did cold war ideology change the civil rights movement? o How and why did the US federal government become involved in civil  rights?


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