Module 6 Notes
Module 6 Notes SPED 7007
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Module 6 Notes Function-‐Based Perspective of Classroom Management Written by Krista Anstead February 2016 Learning Objectives: • Antecedents and Consequences • Setting Events and Contextual Variables Affecting Behavior in the Classroom • Activities as Possible Setting Events • Discriminative Stimuli • Consequences o Consequences for Inappropriate Behavior o What Consequences Follow Problem Behavior? o Which Consequences Are Reinforcing the Behavior? o Consequences for Appropriate Behavior Readings/References: Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). A function-‐based perspective of classroom management. In Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Acronyms: • Classroom behavior management = CBM • Functional Assessment of Classroom Environments = FACE • Functional-‐Based Assessment = FBA Screencast Notes Trend lines in single-‐subject design • Collect data until you get stability in the trend line • Stability in the trend line o Very little variability – 7 data points is good enough o Large variability in data (variable flat line) – 8 data points o Linear trend – keeps climbing and stop at particular point – keep going until you meet your goal o Curvilinear trend – same thing as linear trend o Cyclical – still predictable prefer 8-‐9 trends o No pattern – keep taking data until there is a pattern Chapter 6 Notes Introduction • All behavior that S exhibit in a classroom (appropriate and inappropriate) is learned • All behavior is reinforced in some way and thus can be changed Classroom behavior management • CBM: system that teacher uses to increase appropriate S behavior and minimize disruption in the classroom • Instruction should also be focused on teaching such skills as turn taking, attending for extended periods, conflict resolution, compromising, etc. • Effective learning of academic skills and social skills is more likely to occur in a structured environment • Interventions implemented in the classroom need to match the needs of the classroom Contextual fit • Contextual fit: extent to which an intervention matches the skills, values, and resources of individuals who will implement it • Problems with pre-‐made intervention kits o Results in little, if any improvement in a classroom o Few have been subject to rigorous research o They do not have a contextual fit for any one particular classroom • Conducting a classroom assessment prior to developing an intervention can save a considerable amount of time and effort o Helps T determine when an intervention is needed, what intervention will be most effective, and identify the goals of the classroom Educative behavior management • Two types of CBM strategies o Reactive/punitive § Implemented after an undesired behavior occurs § Goal is to stop the behavior from occurring § Examples: reprimands, office referrals, detention, derogatory comments o Educative § Emphasize proactive planning to prevent problem behaviors from occurring in the first place § Makes it more likely for S to “do the right thing” § Most effective for increasing academic and social behavior skills and decreasing problem behavior in the classroom Classroom functional behavior assessment • Step 1: define the target behavior o Develop a vision for the classroom o Transform these goals into observable outcomes • Step 2: assess predictable patterns in the classroom o Begins with getting the big picture and narrowing the focus § Start first with antecedents, then specific events and problem behaviors • Step 3: Determine the functional routines • Step 4: Determine how S behavior is affected by what comes before and after behavior o FACE is a useful tool to help determine antecedents and consequences o Antecedents: what happens before the behavior § Types of antecedent variables: • Setting the event • Discriminative stimuli o Consequences: what occurs after the behavior Functional routines • A routine analysis can be conducted to identify functional routines • Functional routines: regular and predictable activities that occur in a classroom • Specific activity within which a problem behavior most often occurs • When certain behaviors that occur across the day, this does not mean that they have the same antecedents and are maintained by the same consequences Scatter plot • Used to determine the times of the day in which problems occur most often • Time intervals should be based on logical breaks rather than hours of the clock • Once the scatter plot is set up, T indicates when problem behavior occurs by filling in the boxes associated with the times of day and occurrence of the behavior Setting events and discriminative stimuli • Setting events: contextual variable that regularly are present during problematic routines and affect progress toward achieving goals • Examples of setting events o Physical layout of the room § Use of wall space: cluttered walls can be overly stimulating § How students are situated: rate of questions are higher with semicircle arrangement; disruptive behavior occurred more often when students are seated at tables § Location of teacher’s desk § How work stations are situated § Whether traffic has a logical flow: could be cause for bumping one another when moving about the room or getting into things that are not theirs o structured routines § structured routines: expectations for acceptable behavior are clear and S know what they are supposed to be doing § degree to which activities are structured § should follow a consistent schedule so that everyone knows what will be coming next; post the schedule on the wall or board § behavioral expectations are clearly defined and taught o level of supervision § supervision is not a passive process! § Entails moving about the room constantly § T should use position in room to encourage appropriate behavior and discourage inappropriate behavior § T should be able to observe entire room from all locations • Worthwhile to determine is problem is due to what went on before the activity or what is coming next • Determine if target behavior occurs/doesn’t occur at similar times each day regardless of the specifics of the activity immediately at hand • Discriminative stimuli: an event that signals that a particular consequence will or will not be forthcoming • Focus should be to identify discriminative stimuli for problem behavior and cues for appropriate behavior • Ask: what in the classroom seems to trigger the problems? Then ask questions to make sure that identified stimuli is the most relevant factor • Signals for appropriate behavior can be permanent products such as posters of classroom rules or specific T behaviors • Efficient and well-‐managed classrooms clearly state classroom rules that are few in number and posted in observable place in the room • Methods to “catch” S when behavior is moving away from what is expected is important to have Consequences in the classroom • Consequences determine whether a behavior will continue to occur • Identifying consequences involves determining what reliably occurs after the problem behavior • Reinforcing consequences for problem behavior are identified by making two determinations: o Which consequences most often follow the problem behavior in the routine § When problem behavior occurs during ___________, what happens afterward? § Define consequences in objective, observable terms § Identify most relevant consequences o Which of the consequences that occur most often most likely is reinforcing the behavior and how § Involves asking follow-‐up questions about each consequence identified § How often does the consequence occur? § Does the consequence ever occur when S are doing what is expected? § Would the behavior likely continue even if that consequence did not happen? • Consequences for appropriate behavior o What happens when S do the right thing? o Determine what reliably occurs when S behave as desired Hypothesis statement • Hypothesis statement: a summary of what was learned via the FBA • Summarizes the relation between the behavior and the events that precede (antecedents) and follow (consequences) the behavior • Helpful to develop a summary statement for problem behavior and desired behavior • To use a hypothesis statement: o Record the results o Note whether setting events or other environmental factors affect behavior o Record triggers o Record what happens after the behavior o For problem behaviors, also record the perceived function (reinforcement or avoidance) • Conduct a brief observation to confirm hypothesis • Classroom FBA should be continued until everyone involved is confident in the hypothesis statement Db Post Directions: Post Answers to end of Chapter Questions 1 and 2 on the Discussion Board by Friday 11:59pm of this week AND please respond to at least one of your classmates' answers/ comments. 1. Provide a rationale for conducting a classroom FBA instead of using a pre-‐packaged classroom management intervention. 2. Identify at least two setting events and two discriminative stimuli that might evoke problem behavior in a classroom.
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