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Module 6 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 6 Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes for module 6 in class. They cover the teacher-posted screencast and chapter 6 of our textbook.
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Class Notes
Function-Based Perspective of Classroom Management
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Module  6  Notes   Function-­‐Based  Perspective  of  Classroom  Management   Written  by  Krista  Anstead   February  2016   Learning  Objectives:   •   Antecedents  and  Consequences   •   Setting  Events  and  Contextual  Variables  Affecting  Behavior  in  the  Classroom   •   Activities  as  Possible  Setting  Events   •   Discriminative  Stimuli   •   Consequences   o   Consequences  for  Inappropriate  Behavior   o   What  Consequences  Follow  Problem  Behavior?   o   Which  Consequences  Are  Reinforcing  the  Behavior?   o   Consequences  for  Appropriate  Behavior     Readings/References:   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  A  function-­‐based  perspective  of  classroom  management.  In     Managing  Classroom  Behavior  Using  Positive  Behavior  Supports.  Boston:  Pearson.     Acronyms:   •   Classroom  behavior  management  =  CBM   •   Functional  Assessment  of  Classroom  Environments  =  FACE   •   Functional-­‐Based  Assessment  =  FBA     Screencast  Notes   Trend  lines  in  single-­‐subject  design   •   Collect  data  until  you  get  stability  in  the  trend  line   •   Stability  in  the  trend  line   o   Very  little  variability  –  7  data  points  is  good  enough   o   Large  variability  in  data  (variable  flat  line)  –  8  data  points   o   Linear  trend  –  keeps  climbing  and  stop  at  particular  point  –  keep  going  until  you   meet  your  goal   o   Curvilinear  trend  –  same  thing  as  linear  trend   o   Cyclical  –  still  predictable  prefer  8-­‐9  trends   o   No  pattern  –  keep  taking  data  until  there  is  a  pattern         Chapter  6  Notes   Introduction   •   All  behavior  that  S  exhibit  in  a  classroom  (appropriate  and  inappropriate)  is  learned   •   All  behavior  is  reinforced  in  some  way  and  thus  can  be  changed     Classroom  behavior  management   •   CBM:  system  that  teacher  uses  to  increase  appropriate  S  behavior  and  minimize   disruption  in  the  classroom   •   Instruction  should  also  be  focused  on  teaching  such  skills  as  turn  taking,  attending  for   extended  periods,  conflict  resolution,  compromising,  etc.   •   Effective  learning  of  academic  skills  and  social  skills  is  more  likely  to  occur  in  a  structured   environment   •   Interventions  implemented  in  the  classroom  need  to  match  the  needs  of  the  classroom     Contextual  fit   •   Contextual  fit:  extent  to  which  an  intervention  matches  the  skills,  values,  and  resources   of  individuals  who  will  implement  it   •   Problems  with  pre-­‐made  intervention  kits   o   Results  in  little,  if  any  improvement  in  a  classroom   o   Few  have  been  subject  to  rigorous  research   o   They  do  not  have  a  contextual  fit  for  any  one  particular  classroom   •   Conducting  a  classroom  assessment  prior  to  developing  an  intervention  can  save  a   considerable  amount  of  time  and  effort   o   Helps  T  determine  when  an  intervention  is  needed,  what  intervention  will  be   most  effective,  and  identify  the  goals  of  the  classroom     Educative  behavior  management   •   Two  types  of  CBM  strategies   o   Reactive/punitive   §   Implemented  after  an  undesired  behavior  occurs   §   Goal  is  to  stop  the  behavior  from  occurring   §   Examples:  reprimands,  office  referrals,  detention,  derogatory  comments   o   Educative   §   Emphasize  proactive  planning  to  prevent  problem  behaviors  from   occurring  in  the  first  place   §   Makes  it  more  likely  for  S  to  “do  the  right  thing”   §   Most  effective  for  increasing  academic  and  social  behavior  skills  and   decreasing  problem  behavior  in  the  classroom     Classroom  functional  behavior  assessment   •   Step  1:  define  the  target  behavior   o   Develop  a  vision  for  the  classroom   o   Transform  these  goals  into  observable  outcomes   •   Step  2:  assess  predictable  patterns  in  the  classroom   o   Begins  with  getting  the  big  picture  and  narrowing  the  focus   §   Start  first  with  antecedents,  then  specific  events  and  problem  behaviors   •   Step  3:  Determine  the  functional  routines   •   Step  4:  Determine  how  S  behavior  is  affected  by  what  comes  before  and  after  behavior   o   FACE  is  a  useful  tool  to  help  determine  antecedents  and  consequences   o   Antecedents:  what  happens  before  the  behavior   §   Types  of  antecedent  variables:   •   Setting  the  event   •   Discriminative  stimuli   o   Consequences:  what  occurs  after  the  behavior     Functional  routines   •   A  routine  analysis  can  be  conducted  to  identify  functional  routines   •   Functional  routines:  regular  and  predictable  activities  that  occur  in  a  classroom   •   Specific  activity  within  which  a  problem  behavior  most  often  occurs   •   When  certain  behaviors  that  occur  across  the  day,  this  does  not  mean  that  they  have  the   same  antecedents  and  are  maintained  by  the  same  consequences     Scatter  plot   •   Used  to  determine  the  times  of  the  day  in  which  problems  occur  most  often   •   Time  intervals  should  be  based  on  logical  breaks  rather  than  hours  of  the  clock   •   Once  the  scatter  plot  is  set  up,  T  indicates  when  problem  behavior  occurs  by  filling  in   the  boxes  associated  with  the  times  of  day  and  occurrence  of  the  behavior     Setting  events  and  discriminative  stimuli   •   Setting  events:  contextual  variable  that  regularly  are  present  during  problematic   routines  and  affect  progress  toward  achieving  goals   •   Examples  of  setting  events   o   Physical  layout  of  the  room   §   Use  of  wall  space:  cluttered  walls  can  be  overly  stimulating   §   How  students  are  situated:  rate  of  questions  are  higher  with  semicircle   arrangement;  disruptive  behavior  occurred  more  often  when  students   are  seated  at  tables   §   Location  of  teacher’s  desk   §   How  work  stations  are  situated   §   Whether  traffic  has  a  logical  flow:  could  be  cause  for  bumping  one   another  when  moving  about  the  room  or  getting  into  things  that  are  not   theirs   o   structured  routines   §   structured  routines:  expectations  for  acceptable  behavior  are  clear  and  S   know  what  they  are  supposed  to  be  doing   §   degree  to  which  activities  are  structured   §   should  follow  a  consistent  schedule  so  that  everyone  knows  what  will  be   coming  next;  post  the  schedule  on  the  wall  or  board   §   behavioral  expectations  are  clearly  defined  and  taught   o   level  of  supervision     §   supervision  is  not  a  passive  process!   §   Entails  moving  about  the  room  constantly   §   T  should  use  position  in  room  to  encourage  appropriate  behavior  and   discourage  inappropriate  behavior   §   T  should  be  able  to  observe  entire  room  from  all  locations   •   Worthwhile  to  determine  is  problem  is  due  to  what  went  on  before  the  activity  or  what   is  coming  next   •   Determine  if  target  behavior  occurs/doesn’t  occur  at  similar  times  each  day  regardless   of  the  specifics  of  the  activity  immediately  at  hand   •   Discriminative  stimuli:  an  event  that  signals  that  a  particular  consequence  will  or  will  not   be  forthcoming   •   Focus  should  be  to  identify  discriminative  stimuli  for  problem  behavior  and  cues  for   appropriate  behavior   •   Ask:  what  in  the  classroom  seems  to  trigger  the  problems?  Then  ask  questions  to  make   sure  that  identified  stimuli  is  the  most  relevant  factor   •   Signals  for  appropriate  behavior  can  be  permanent  products  such  as  posters  of   classroom  rules  or  specific  T  behaviors   •   Efficient  and  well-­‐managed  classrooms  clearly  state  classroom  rules  that  are  few  in   number  and  posted  in  observable  place  in  the  room   •   Methods  to  “catch”  S  when  behavior  is  moving  away  from  what  is  expected  is  important   to  have     Consequences  in  the  classroom   •   Consequences  determine  whether  a  behavior  will  continue  to  occur   •   Identifying  consequences  involves  determining  what  reliably  occurs  after  the  problem   behavior   •   Reinforcing  consequences  for  problem  behavior  are  identified  by  making  two   determinations:   o   Which  consequences  most  often  follow  the  problem  behavior  in  the  routine   §   When  problem  behavior  occurs  during  ___________,  what  happens   afterward?   §   Define  consequences  in  objective,  observable  terms   §   Identify  most  relevant  consequences   o   Which  of  the  consequences  that  occur  most  often  most  likely  is  reinforcing  the   behavior  and  how   §   Involves  asking  follow-­‐up  questions  about  each  consequence  identified   §   How  often  does  the  consequence  occur?   §   Does  the  consequence  ever  occur  when  S  are  doing  what  is  expected?   §   Would  the  behavior  likely  continue  even  if  that  consequence  did  not   happen?   •   Consequences  for  appropriate  behavior   o   What  happens  when  S  do  the  right  thing?   o   Determine  what  reliably  occurs  when  S  behave  as  desired     Hypothesis  statement   •   Hypothesis  statement:  a  summary  of  what  was  learned  via  the  FBA   •   Summarizes  the  relation  between  the  behavior  and  the  events  that  precede   (antecedents)  and  follow  (consequences)  the  behavior   •   Helpful  to  develop  a  summary  statement  for  problem  behavior  and  desired  behavior   •   To  use  a  hypothesis  statement:   o   Record  the  results   o   Note  whether  setting  events  or  other  environmental  factors  affect  behavior   o   Record  triggers   o   Record  what  happens  after  the  behavior   o   For  problem  behaviors,  also  record  the  perceived  function  (reinforcement  or   avoidance)   •   Conduct  a  brief  observation  to  confirm  hypothesis   •   Classroom  FBA  should  be  continued  until  everyone  involved  is  confident  in  the   hypothesis  statement     Db  Post   Directions:  Post  Answers  to  end  of  Chapter  Questions  1  and  2  on  the  Discussion  Board  by  Friday   11:59pm  of  this  week  AND  please  respond  to  at  least  one  of  your  classmates'  answers/   comments.   1.   Provide  a  rationale  for  conducting  a  classroom  FBA  instead  of  using  a  pre-­‐packaged   classroom  management  intervention.   2.   Identify  at  least  two  setting  events  and  two  discriminative  stimuli  that  might  evoke   problem  behavior  in  a  classroom.      


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