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Biomechanics and Skeletal Muscle Notes

by: Jess Snider

Biomechanics and Skeletal Muscle Notes KIN 365

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > KIN 365 > Biomechanics and Skeletal Muscle Notes
Jess Snider

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Class notes from the week of 2/15/16
Applied Biomechanics
Colleen Geary
Class Notes
Biomechanics, Skeletal Muscle, KIN365
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess Snider on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 365 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Colleen Geary in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Biomechanics & the Human Machine  Biomechanics & Kinesiology  Kinesiology  The study of human movement  In this class we will study both:  Structural Kinesiology  The study of muscle, bones, & joints involved in the science of movement  Biomechanics  The physics (mechanics) of motion exhibited or produced by biological system  Human Body = Human Machine  Made of 2 components:  Bones muscles  Bones, which come together at joints, are moved by muscle which move in such a way to provide movement necessary for bodily movement & skilled performance  Bones/Skeleton  206 bones in the body serve as a system of levers & make up the human skeleton  Hugely important structure  5 major functions  Functions of Skeletal System  5 Major Functions of Skeletal System  Protection for vital soft tissue  Including heart, lungs, & brains  Support to maintain posture  Site of mineral storage  Specifically calcium & phosphorous  Site of hemopoiesis  Involving blood cell formation in red bone marrow  Movement  Serve as point of attachment (origin & insertion) for the muscle & act as levers by which movement is possible  Bones/Skeleton  Can divided skeletal system into 2 planes  Axial  80 bones include: skull, sternum, ribs, spinal column, & coccyx  Divides right down the middle  Gives body front & back  Appendicular  126 bones include: all bones of upper & lower extremities, including clavicle & pelvis  Divides right across the midline  Gives body upper/lower extremities  Types of Bones(5)  Long bones:  Serve as levers  Ex: tibia, fibula, femur, radius, ulna, & humerus  Short bones:  Provide shock absorption  Ex: carpals & tarsals  Flat bone:  Provide protection  Ex: ribs, sternum, clavicle, scapula  Irregular bones:  Variety of purposes  Ex: bones throughout spine  Sesamoid bones:  Provided protection & improve the mechanical advantage of musculotendinous units  Ex: patella  Bones from Joints  Joint:  Location at which two or more bones connect  Articulation of two or more bones allowing various types of movement  Extent & type of movement determine the name applied to the joint including:  Synarthrodial  Amphiarthrodial  Diarthrodial  Joint Types  Synarthrodial  Immobile joints/minimal movement  Ex: cranial bones & socket of teeth  Amphiarthrodial  Slightly movable  Ex: pubis symphysis, intervertebral disks, & ribs @ sternum  Diarthrodial (aka. Synovial)  Freely movable  Ex: knees, shoulder, elbows, wrist, ankle  Diarthrodial/Synovial joints include:  Joint capsule:  Surround bony ends forming the joints  Line with synovial capsule  Joint Cavity:  Area inside the joint capsule  Lubricated with synovial fluid  Ligaments:  Connect bone to bone  Provides additional support to joint  Hyaline Cartilage:  Covers articular surfaces on ends of bones inside joint cavity  Aids in protection from wear Skeletal Muscles  Skeletal Muscles  Over 600 skeletal muscles  Comprise approximately 40 -50% of body weight  215 pairs of skeletal muscles usually work in cooperation with each other to perform opposite actions at the joints which they cross  for more about skeletal muscles  Can identify muscle by many different methods:  Direction of fibers  Size  Position with each other  Position within body  Shape  Size of origin  Number of muscles in group  Where they attach  Cause motion of skeletal system  Call these joint actions  Responsible for movement of body & all of its joints  Role of skeletal muscles:  Skeletal muscle provide:  Protection  Posture & support  Produce a major portion of total body heat  Stabilization during contraction  Assistance during contraction  Contractions for movement


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