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Week 7

by: Taryn manciu

Week 7 Hist309

Taryn manciu
GPA 3.46

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one week of notes
History of Women in the U.S. part 2
Professor Bufalino
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in History of Women in the U.S. part 2

Popular in History

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taryn manciu on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist309 at University of Oregon taught by Professor Bufalino in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see History of Women in the U.S. part 2 in History at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Week  7  Monday  Document  Analysis     Group  Discussion     “Should  we  draft  mothers?”   -­‐Progressive:  women  should  get  paid  to  stay  home     -­‐Time:  war  not  over,  but  clean  that  it  will  come  to  an  end  very  soon     -­‐Playing  to  role  of  it’s  your  job  to  keep  kids  out  of  trouble   -­‐It’s  not  a  mans  fault  that  children  fall  out  of  line  while  in  a  mans  absence  but  it’s  the   woman’s  role  to  keep  them  in  check       *All  talked  about  how  women  could  go  out  and  be  a  worker  and  be  successful  but   that  they  shouldn’t  because  its  going  to  affect  the  home  and  their  husbands  pride.   BIG  step  to  stay  that  WOMEN  are  capable  at  the  very  least.        “Occupation  housewife”   -­‐Is  just  being  a  housewife  satisfying?   -­‐Tension  between  glorification  (women  need  to  be  at  home)  but  at  same  time   women  question  if  its  what  they  want.  Luke  warm  appreciation  of  work  (not  enough   to  be  paid  for  it  but  still  important)     *Contradiction,  tension  between  governmental  discourses.  Suggesting  significant   number  of  women  of  unmarried  women  “stay  in  their  jobs?”  -­‐-­‐-­‐  a  women  who  loves   her  job  too  much  Is  a  problem.                                               Week  7  Wednesday     Cold  War  Activism       Out  to  work   Women  drawn  to  high  wages  and  non-­‐material  benefits  of  work     -­‐Full  employment  meant  competitive  wages     -­‐Women’s  contributions  to  the  war  effort  praised  extensively  by  industry,     govt.  and  in  pop  culture  (magazine,  TV.,  etc.)     -­‐Rhetoric  of  “A  man-­‐sized  job”  indicated  temporary  suspensions  of  genders     norms.   1945     -­‐33%  of  workforce  were  female  (up  from  21%  in  1933))     -­‐36%  of  women  worked  for  wages     -­‐10%  of  married  women  worked     -­‐4%  skilled  workers  were  female     -­‐Pay  for  skilled  work       -­‐Female  $31.21  week       -­‐Male  $54.65  week     -­‐Most  wanted  to  keep  working  after  war       -­‐Women  who  had  children  who  were  school  age  and  up  were  being  encouraged  to  join   workforce,  under  school  age  children  were  encouraged  to  stay  home     Women  in  the  Military   -­‐Women  accepted  for  volunteer  emergency  services  (WAVES-­‐Navy)   -­‐Women’s  Army  Auxiliary  Corps  (WAACs-­‐1942)   -­‐Women’s  Auxiliary  Ferrying  Squadron  (WAFs)     -­‐Grew  out  of  work  for  various  work  women  were  doing  for  building  aircrafts   -­‐Women’s  Air  Force  service  pilots  (WASPs)     -­‐As  war  progress  it  became  evident  that  there  was  a  need  for  women  to  take  part  in   many  of  these  activities  over  seas,  women  were  formally  part  of  the  military  control   instead  of  just  temporary  spot  holders  (benefits  only  available  to  men  are  now   available  to  women  ex.  GI  bill)     -­‐Women’s  Army  Core  recognized  women   -­‐Army  was  the  force  that  had  the  largest  number  of  women     Lecture  Themes   -­‐Contrast  between  post-­‐war  prosperity  and  continuing  inequality  for  women  and   people  of  color   -­‐Cold  war  military-­‐industrial  complex  challenged  on  several  fronts:  college  students,   urban  youth,  and  people  of  color,  wage  earners  and  mothers   -­‐Social  movements  emerged  demanding  equal  rights  and  government  reform   (beginning  1950’s)   -­‐Women  played  a  leading  role:  but  met  with  discrimination  from  within  and  without   -­‐End  of  the  War  for  U.S  precipitated  by  atomic  bombs  dropped  on  Japan   -­‐Manning  of  ending  of  war  is  significant  for  all  Americans  but  especially  for  American   women   -­‐Contrast  between  economic  prosperity  with  continued  extreme  inequality  (women,   people  of  color,  women  of  color)  will  lead  to  social  movements.   -­‐Women  play  significant  role  in  social  movements,  as  they  have  a  key  role  in  the   thinking,  and  being  leaders.  1950s-­‐  on   -­‐In  terms  of  workforce,  women  take  advantage  of  prosperity  and  enter  workforce  in   greater  and  greater  numbers   -­‐Prosperity  will  highlight  that  women  will  experience  discrimination  and  sexual   harassment  in  the  workforce     -­‐Contrast  between  prosperity  and  oppression       The  Cold  War   -­‐1945-­‐1991  conflict  between  U.S.  and  Soviet  Union  for  global  supremacy   -­‐On-­‐going  political  conflict,  occasional  military  conflicts  (proxy  wars),  mutually   assured  destruction  (by  1950s)     -­‐Competition  between  U.S.  and  Soviet  Union  for  controlling  influence  over     various  parts  of  the  world,  obsessed  wit  with  making  sure  communism  does  not     spread  around  the  world     -­‐Arms  race  for  “who  has  the  greatest  capacity  to  harm?”     1950s  Cultural  Conflict    -­‐Post  War  “booms”     -­‐Military-­‐industrial  complex     -­‐High  birth  rate  (baby  boomers)     -­‐Consumer’s  republic     -­‐Suburbanization       -­‐Suburbs  emerged  to  house  people  that  moved  from  the  west  coast  In         order  to  have  more  space  and  room  for  all  the  children,  it  also  made  it         so  people  needed  MORE  house  stuff.       -­‐All  the  suburbs  people,  you  NEED  a  car.  Types  of  expenses  are  changing       and  emerging  and  this  stimulates  the  economy  immensely       -­‐McCarthyism     -­‐Led  to  a  huge  rise  in  people  being  executed  and  imprisoned  for  suspected     communism  (miscarriages  of  justice)     -­‐Tremendous  period  of  negative  feel  towards  “the  left”   -­‐Growing  up  Nuclear     -­‐Created  anxiety  and  affluence  (constant  reminder  and  education  on     potential  to  being  bombed   -­‐Glorification  of  Domesticity  vs.  the  “Permissive  Society”     -­‐Distance  women  from  urban  networks     -­‐Increasing  concern  about  mother  dominated/suburban  household  and  effect  it     was  having  on  children  (concern  of  increasing  juvenile  delinquency)     -­‐50s  and  60s  mothers  were  blamed  for  problems  with  the  child  (blamed  for     overly  babying  the  child)     Post  War  Female  Employment   -­‐2  million  women  laid  off  high  paying  factory  jobs   -­‐Decline  in  domestic  work  continues  post-­‐war   -­‐Rise  in  “pink  collar”  jobs  absorbs  wartime  female  work  force     -­‐Service  jobs  or  clerical  jobs  (dominated  by  women)  business  that  thrive     (defense  automobile,  etc.)  will  need  clerical  staff  and  women  will  fill  those     positions     -­‐With  exception  of  the  initial  wave  of  women  being  laid  off,  the  actual     percentage  of  women  in  workforce  will  actually  continue  to  grow   -­‐Steady  increase  in  %  of  women  working  outside  home     %  of  U.S.  women  in  the  workforce  (age  15+)   1900  :  18.8%   1910  :  21.5%   1920  :  21.4%   1930  :  22.0%   1940  :  25.4%*     ß  here  forward  steady  increase  in  women  in  the  workforce     1950  :  33.9%   1960  :  37.7%   1970  :  43.3%         The  Women  Struggle  for  Black  freedom   -­‐Leadership     -­‐College  students  and  grads  overrepresented     -­‐Black  men  overrepresented  (dominated  over  and  above  their  numbers)     -­‐Female  leaders:  Ella  Baker,  Daisy  Bates,  Fannie  Lou  Hammer,  Angela  Davis,     and  Elaine  Brown  among  others   -­‐Demonstrators     -­‐Students  overrepresented     -­‐Black  women  highly  visible  on  “front  lines”   -­‐Supporters     -­‐Women  overrepresented  in  consumer  boycotts   -­‐Patriarchy  prevailed          


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