Solutions and chemical kinetics notes
Solutions and chemical kinetics notes Cem 152 (P. Hunt)
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by JessicaJ on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Cem 152 (P. Hunt) at Michigan State University taught by P. Hunt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry in Chemistry at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Solutions Use of Van’t Hoff equation to find molecular weights of macromolecule cells o Know mass of the macromolecular sample o Dissolve the sample as ‘B’ in your osmotic pressure apparatus o Measure pi, T (temperature), and known R (gas constant) o Calculate molarity o Calculate molecular weight (measured in Daltons) Engineering application: o Apply excess pressure to the solute-containing side of the apparatus. This drives solvent from the solution to the pure solvent “reverse osmosis” Colloidal dispersions Phase Primary Secondary Type Example Gas Solvent Solute -------- --------- Gas Gas --------- --------- Gas Liquid Aerosol Fog Gas Soild Aerosol Smoke Liquid Liquid Gas Foam Whipped Cream Liquid Liquid Emulsion Milk Liquid Solid Sol Paint Solid Solid Gas Solid Foam Marshmallow Solid Liquid Solid Emulsion Butter Solid Solid Solid Sol Ruby Detect colloidal dispersions by using: o Tyndall Effect Due to the fact that colloids scatter light Headlights thro fog effect Crenation o Cell shrinking that is caused from low concentration in the cell o Water flows out causing the cell to shrivel Hemolysis o Internal concentration is too high o Water flows in cell causing it to burst o Use saline solutions in IVs to prevent this 2-19-16 Notes Chemical Kinetics Chemical Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics How far does a reaction proceed? How far does reaction go? How frequently do collisions occur? o Cross sections o Speed of motion/kinetic energy How effective are they when they do occur? o Molecularity and geometry Unimolecular – one (atom) molecule Bimolecular – two molecule Trimolecular or termolecular – three molecules Tertramolecular – four o Energetics Energy Extent of rxn Endergonic reaction Energy if sufficient to go for the activated complex (classically permitted) Classically forbidden but possible w/ low probability due to duration Forbidden o Dynamics Energetically permissible final states of a collision may nevertheless not be reachable by a finite point Elastic collisions Inelastic collisions Reactive Exchange A+BC ABC Dissociative A+BC A+B+C Other non-reactive San Rational ?---tional Electronic Collinear collisions A+BC AB+C
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