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GPH210 Week 07 Note

by: Phoebe Chang

GPH210 Week 07 Note GPH 210

Marketplace > Geography > GPH 210 > GPH210 Week 07 Note
Phoebe Chang
GPA 4.28

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Human Population Growth
Society and Environment
Elizabeth Larson
Class Notes
geography, population, Ecology, Human
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GPH 210 at a university taught by Elizabeth Larson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
GPH210HumanPopulationGrowth SpringSEMESTER2016 Professor:Dr.ElizabethLarson EliteNotetaker:Phoebe( 1. What’s the Problem?  ○ 2014  ■ 7.23 billi humans on Earth  ■ Increasing demand for all resources  ■ Took 12 years to produce 1 million more population  ■ By 2050 predicted to ha9.6 billiopeople  ○ Rapid population growth  ■ Source of all problem (bias idea)  ■ Increasing impact on Earth  ■ Higher rate of consumption  ■ Rates are regionally and economically based  ■ Lowest well­being = high population growth rate / low consumption rates   ○ Ranking 2010  ■ 1st— China (1.36 billion)  ■ 2nd— India (1.2 billion)  ■ 3rd— Untied State (0.31 billion)    2. History of Human Population Growth  ○ Slow/uneven growth until 1800s then rapid growth  ○ Periods of growth  ■ Pre­agricultural Period  ■ 100k years ago  ■ Started to have culture   ■ Homo sapiens​ began to migrate out of Africa  ■ Doubling time: 10k years +  1 ■ Final population: 5­10 million  ■ Agricultural Period  ■ 10k years ago  ■ Domestication of plants and animals   ■ Doubling time: 1k years  ■ Final population: 500+ million  ■ Industrial Period  ■ Technology advance (fossil fuels)  ■ Sanitation/Medication (decline death rate)  ■ Current Period  ■ Final population: 7 billion  ○ Demographic Transition Model (Latin American growth example)  ■ Stage 1 (1600­1900)  ■ Before economic development  ■ High birth rate  ■ High death rate  ■ Stage 2 (1900­1969)  ■ “Mortality Transition"  ■ Rapid population growth   ■ High birth rate  ■ Lowing death rate  ■ Stage 3 (1970)  ■ “Fertility Transition”  ■ Slowing population growth  ■ Lowing birth rate  ■ Low death rate  ■ Stage 4 (2050)  ■ “Stability Transition”  ■ Zero population growth / negative growth  ■ Low birth rate = Low death rate      2 3. Global Variation in Human Population Growth  ○ Birth Rate  ■ Wealth Influence  ■ Wealthier = Lower birth rates  ■ Age­specific Birth Rate  ■ Specific for certain age group  ■ Born kid in a year / 1000 woman   ○ Death Rate  ■ Wealth Influence  ■ More nutrition / health care / sanitation  ■ Wealthier = Lower infant mortality rate  ■ Poor countries’ rate 18 times higher  ■ Infant Mortality Rate  ■ Percentage infants that die before 1 year old  ■ High rate = population growth  ■ Survivorship  ■ Affected by wealth + sex  ■ Number of years members of a specific group lives  ■ E.g. 60% survive to age 25  ■ Life Expectancy  ■ Affected by wealth + sex  ■ Mainly due tnutrition / health care / sanitation improvement  ■ United States life expectancy  ■ Male: 77.7 years old  ■ Female: 82.1 years old  ■ Global life expectancy  ■ In the past 5 decades  ■ 45.6—68.9 years  ○ Age Structure Pyramids (age­sex pyramid)  ■ Determined by survivorship and age­specific birth rate  ■ Graphically display age structure  ■ Indicates rate of population growth  3 ■ 15­49 is the most critical age span for women to determine the current fertility  rate potential  ○ Migration  ■ Relocation of populations  ■ Types of migrations  ■ Immigration “Pull Factor”  ■ Moving in  ■ E.g. freedom / education / employment  ■ Emigration “Push Factor”  ■ Moving out  ■ E.g. war / famine / oppression / persecution  ■ Net Migration Rate  ■ Difference between immigration and emigration  ■ Positive net migration rates account for 65%  of total population  growth    4. Predicting Human Population Growth  ○ Thomas Malthus  ■ 1700s  ■ Observed population growth in American colonies   ■ Predictions  ■ Human exponential growth  ■ Problems such as diminished well­being / poverty  ■ Faster than European population growth due to better resources were  available  ○ Current Forecasts  ■ Economic development made predictions hard  ■ Past estimates of 1930­1960 flawed  ■ United Nations data  ■ By 2050 we will hav9.6 billio people      4 5. Resource Use and Population Sustainability  ○ Carrying Capacity  ■ Size of population the environment can support  ■ E.g. USA keep growing = ecological debt increases   ○ Ecological Footprint  ■ Area of land needed to supply certain consumer  ■ Size varies between countries / different lifestyles  ○ Human Resource Use  ■ Biocapacity  ■ Area and quality of land to supply resource  ■ Exceeding = importing goods  ■ World’s countries run beyond global biocapacity therefore behavior,  lifestyles and expectations need to follow a path of minimizing  consumption of resources  ○ Affluence and Technology  ■ IPAT Equation ( I = P ⨉ A ⨉ T )  ■ Equation explanation  ■ I = Impact on environment  ■ P = Population (size / growth / distribution)  ■ A = Affluence (individual consumption)  ■ T = Technology (energy using items)  ■ Use to estimate the ecological footprint of a society    6. Managing Population Growth  ○ Reason why poor families in developing countries have many kids  ■ Assure care of parents when they’re old  ■ More male = more help for farm or business  ■ High mortality among the young  ○ Family Planning  ■ Education decreases birth rate (major success)  ■ Delaying the age of first reproduction  ■ Resources limitation / limiting family size  5 ■ E.g. China (one child policy), India / Mexico (communication,  education, counseling, contraceptives)  ■ Reduced workforce / economic issues  ■ E.g. Japan, Spain, Italy, etc  ○ United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)  ■ Three core foci  ■ Gather population dynamics data  ■ Delivering healthcare to women  ■ Encourage gender empowerment and equality through education or  government participation    6


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