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ANFS140 Week of 02/15/16

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by: Rachel Schmuckler

ANFS140 Week of 02/15/16 140

Marketplace > University of Delaware > General Science > 140 > ANFS140 Week of 02 15 16
Rachel Schmuckler

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Lecture notes from Week 2 of Dyer ANFS140
Functional Anatomy of Domestic Animals
Dr. Robert Dyer
Class Notes
fibrous connective tissue, fibroblasts, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, regular dense, irregular dense, loose
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"No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!"
Layla Dicki

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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 140 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Robert Dyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Functional Anatomy of Domestic Animals in General Science at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Fibrous Connective Tissue Connective Tissue  Adipose  Blood  Bone  Cartilage o Hyaline o Elastic o Fibrocartilage  Fibrous Tissue o Loose o Irregular Dense o Dense Fibrous Mesenchymal Cell  Undifferentiated cell that gives rise to all other cell types in connective tissue  Common ancestral cell  Adipose = adipocyte, pre-adipocyte or lipoblast  Blood = myeloid and erythroid series  Bone = osteoprogenitor and osteoclasts  Cartilage = chondrocyte o Hyaline o Elastic o Fibrocartilage  Fibrous tissue = fibroblast o Loose o Irregular dense o Dense fibrous Two Components of Fibrous Connective Tissue Cellular Component o Changes with different types of connective tissue cells o Fibroblasts  Permanent  Endemic cell type  Makes the matrix and fibrous component of fibrous connective tissue o Mesenchymal Stem Cells – give rise to fibroblasts o Immune Cells  Wander in and out of fibrous tissue continuously  Immune Surveillance: exit the vascular tree, migrate through fibrous connective tissue, and back into the vascular tree to recirculate elsewhere  Monitor for infectious agents/tumors/damaged matrix  Located in lymph nodes, bone marrow Extracellular Component o Matrix  Very slippery  Hyaluronin – long sugars, oil-like, secreted by joints  Proteoglycans – proteins with sugars attached o Fibrous component – collagen fibers, like cable or rope o Matrix and fibrous components are generated by the cellular component and maintained by constant reabsorption/re- synthesis by cell components  Constantly regenerating because they are always damaged with movement/metabolism/bacterial viruses Loose Fibrous Connective Tissue  Fibroblasts  High content of extracellular matrix – tons of hyaluronin and proteoglycans  Low content of collagen fibers  Spiders in a spider web o Spiders = fibroblasts, making the fibers o Spider web = collagen fibers o If honey dumped into the spider web, the honey is the hyaluronin and proteoglycans o Ants = immune cells climb along the web/honey looking for errors  Attaches skin to underlying tissue Irregular Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue  Fibroblasts  Moderate content of extracellular matrix  Moderate content of collagen fibers  Matrix (oil) decreases as collagen fibers (rope) increase  Tangled mess  Dermis  Gives the skin some strength Dense Regular Fibrous Connective Tissue  Fibroblasts  Tendons and ligaments  Packed full of collagen fibers  Enormous strength  High numbers of collagen fibers, little matrix  Rigidly arranged collagen fibers Collagen  Similar to thread  24 different molecular types (numbered 1 to 24) o Numbered based on when they were founded  The types of collagen that are made change depending on the needs of the body, highly variable Tropocollagen Subunit  Molecule synthesized by the fibroblast to create the collagen fibers  Strength of collagen fibers comes from the staggered arrangement of subunits (about 30% crossover between fibers)  Triple helix structure o 3 polypeptide chains (amino acid sequences) o Synthesized by fibroblast, wrapped together in this structure to make tropocollagen subunits o Scurvy  Skin falls apart, loss of elasticity  Hemorrhage, ulcers  Loss of the tropocollagen subunit structure  Vitamin C deficiency, causes issues with the amino acids that make the polypeptide chains curved  Substance that gives the matrix an oily feel  Hyaluronin – green, long polymer of sugar, very slippery  Fibroblasts synthesize proteoglycan o Glycosoaminoglycan (red, sugar) + protein core (yellow)  Composition of glycosoaminoglycans shifts, causing a shift in the composition of the matrix (oil-matrix to wax-hyaline cartilage)  Adds structure to any connective tissue Types of Glycosoaminoglycans Attached to Protein Core  Hyaluronan – synovial fluid  Chondroitin 4 sulfate – cartilage, bone  Chondroitin 6 sulfate – cartilage and bone  Dermatin – skin and blood vessel wall  Keratin sulfate – bone cartilage  Heparin sulfate – basement membrane o Also made by epithelial cells  Extracellular water is electrostatically attached to the matrix of fibrous connective tissue  Glycosoaminoglycans are heavily negatively charged  Water comes out of the cell and the positive end of the polar molecule attaches to the negative charge of the glycosoaminoglycans  Amount of water attached to the glycosoaminoglycans depends on the type of sugars attached  Cells produce tons of hormones/growth factors/proteins which are also charged. As they are synthesized, the factors are also attached to the matrix  Matrix acts as a reservoir of water, growth factors, proteins, and nutrients that is held together electrostatically  Constant equilibrium/interchange between extracellular and intracellular environment of the cells (fibroblasts or immune cells)  No matter what kind of connective tissue, the main cell type is a fibroblast  Above photo is a typical structure for a fibroblast o Specific structure to attach to collagen fibers and glycosoaminoglycans o Manufactures all the parts of the matrix o Makes collage  Collagen fiber attached to the fibroblast as well  Intra and extracellular components shown above Elastic Tissue  Very similar to fibrous connective tissue  i.e. inside the aorta  Fibroblast, matrix, elastin o Fibroblast makes elastic fibers as well as collagen fibers  Varying amounts of elastic tissue present in all types of fibrous connective tissue  Brown = elastic fiber Extracellular Component of an Elastic Fiber  1 molecular type o Multiple elastin subunits are cross linked together to form fibers o Unique amino acid structure desmosine that gives elastin its elastic quality  Desmosine (and isodesmosine): covalently bonds elastic fibers together, amino acid  Copper deficiency – copper is a cofactor that makes isodesmosine, copper deficient animal doesn’t have isodesmosine synthesis in elastin monomers, fibers aren’t linked together very well  Aneurysm – elastic tissue ruptures (i.e. uterine wall) and bleed out Structure  Unstretched  Each pink string is a fiber  Stretched  Copper deficiency causes tearing when stretched  Wall of aorta  If the aorta can’t stretch, the pressure inside will increase rapidly causing hypertension  Looks like regular dense fibrous connective tissue  Dark pink = fibroblasts (making hyuronin, elastic fiber, glycosoaminoglycans) o If the fibroblasts start making collagen fibers instead of elastin, the tissue won’t stretch EXAM QUESTION!!


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