German Notes. Introduction and Chapter One
German Notes. Introduction and Chapter One German 1011
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to German 1011 at University of Cincinnati taught by Anastasia Gerasimchuk in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Extended Basic German 1 in Language at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
*Notes taken from Deutsch: Na klar! 6 Edition* German follows predictable spelling and pronounciation rules. German has 30 letters. 26 are English. The other four are: The pair of dots above the German vowel is “umlaut.” German also has word combination pronounciation, and diphthongs. Numbers in German: 0 null 9 neun 18 achtzehn 90 neunzig 1 eins 10 zehn 19 neunzehn 100 (ein)hundert 2 zwei 11 elf 20 zwanzig 200 zweihundert 3 drei 12 zwölf 30 dreißig 300 dreihundert 4 vier 13 dreizhen 40 vierzig 1,000 (ein)tausend 5 fünf 14 vierzehn 50 fünfzig 2,000 zweitausend 6 sechs 15 fünfzehn 60 sechzig 3,000 dreitausend 7 sieben 16 sechzheb 70 siebzig 8 acht 17 siebzehn 80 achtzig ● The numbers 21 through 99 are formed by combining the numbers 19 with 2090. 21 einundzwanzig 24 vierundzwanzig 27 siebenundzwanzig 22 zweiundswanzig 25 fünfundzwanzig 28 achtundzwanzig 23 dreiunzwanzig 26 sechsundzwanzig 29 neunundzwanzig Grammar ● Personal pronounce stand for a person or a noun. Singular Plural 1st person Ich I Wir we 2nd person Du you (informal) Ihr you (informal) Sie you (formal) Sie you (formal) 3rd person Er he; it Sie they Sie she; it Es it ● The pronoun ich is not capitalized unless it is the first word in a sentence. ● German has 3 words to express you: du, iihr, and Sie. Use the familiar singular form du for a family member, close friend, fellow student, child, or animal. If spealng to two or more of these, use the familiar plural form ihr. Use the formal form Sie (always capitalized for one or more acquaintances, strangers, or anyone with whom you would use Herr or Frau. ● The thirdperson singular pronouns er, sie (she), and es reflect the grammatical gender of the noun or person for which they stand (the antecedent). The Verb: Infinitive and Present Tense: In German, the basic form of the verb, the infinitive, consists of the verb stem plus the ending en or, sometimes, just n kommen finden ich komme finde du kommst findest er sie kommt findet es wir kommen finden ihr kommt findet sie/Sie kommen finden ● German has four different endings to form the present tense: e, (e)st, and en. English, in contrast, has only one ending, (e)s, for the thirdperson singular (comes, goes). ● Verbs with stems ending in d or t (finden, arbeiten) add an e before the st or t ending (du findest, er arbeitet). ● Verbs with stems ending in ß s, or z (hßen, reisen, tanzen) and only a t in the du form (du hei ßt, reist, tanzt). ● The infinitive form of a verb can be used as a noun. Use of Present Tense: ● The present tense in German may express either something happening at the moment or a recurring or habitual action. Wolfgang spielt Karten Wolfgang is playing cards. Antje arbeitet viel Antje works a lot. ● It can also express a future action or occurence, particularly with an expression of time. ● German has one form of the present tense (English has 3). German English Hans dances really well Hans tanzt wirklich gut Hans is dancing really well Hans does dance really well Word Order in Sentences: First Element (Subject, Second Element (Verb) Other Elements Adverb, etc) ich studiere Informatik in Deutschland Nächstes Jahr mache Ich ein Praktikum Heute besuchen Wir das Verkehrsmuseum ● The conjugated verb is always the second element in a sentence. ● The subject of the sentence can either precede or follow the verb. Question Words: Wann kommst du? When are you coming? Was machst du? What are you doing? Wer ist das? Who is that? Wie findest du Berlin? How do you like Berlin? Wo wohnst du? Where do you live? Woher sind Sie? Where are you from? ● Word questions begin with an interrogative pronoun. They require specific information in the answer. ● The conjugated verb is the second element in a word question. ● German uses only one verb form to formulate a question, in contrast to English Where do you live? Wo wohnst du? Where are you living? Definite Articles ● German nouns are classified by grammatical gender as either masculinem feminine, or neuter. ● The definite articlesder,die, and das (all meaningthe in German) signall the gender of nouns.
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