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German Notes. Introduction and Chapter One

by: Alyssa Notetaker

German Notes. Introduction and Chapter One German 1011

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Language > German 1011 > German Notes Introduction and Chapter One
Alyssa Notetaker
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About this Document

Notes about grammar from Introduction and Chapter one of "Deutsch: Na Klar!
Extended Basic German 1
Anastasia Gerasimchuk
Class Notes
German, Language, grammar




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to German 1011 at University of Cincinnati taught by Anastasia Gerasimchuk in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Extended Basic German 1 in Language at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
*Notes taken from Deutsch: Na klar! 6 Edition*  German follows predictable spelling and pronounciation rules.   German has 30 letters. 26 are English. The other four are:    The pair of dots above the German vowel is “umlaut.”  German also has word combination pronounciation, and diphthongs.     Numbers in German:    0 null  9 neun  18 achtzehn  90 neunzig  1 eins  10 zehn  19 neunzehn  100 (ein)hundert  2 zwei  11 elf  20 zwanzig  200 zweihundert  3 drei  12 zwölf  30 dreißig  300 dreihundert  4 vier  13 dreizhen  40 vierzig  1,000 (ein)tausend  5 fünf  14 vierzehn  50 fünfzig  2,000 zweitausend  6 sechs  15 fünfzehn  60 sechzig  3,000 dreitausend  7 sieben  16 sechzheb  70 siebzig    8 acht  17 siebzehn  80 achtzig      ● The numbers 21 through 99 are formed by combining the numbers 1­9 with 20­90.    21 einundzwanzig  24 vierundzwanzig  27 siebenundzwanzig  22 zweiundswanzig  25 fünfundzwanzig  28 achtundzwanzig  23 dreiunzwanzig  26 sechsundzwanzig  29 neunundzwanzig      Grammar   ● Personal pronounce stand for a person or a noun.       Singular   Plural  1st person  Ich I  Wir we  2nd person  Du  you (informal)  Ihr  you (informal)  Sie you (formal)  Sie you (formal)  3rd person  Er    he; it  Sie they  Sie  she; it   Es   it    ● The pronoun ich is not capitalized unless it is the first word in a sentence.   ● German has 3 words to express you: du, iihr, and Sie. Use the familiar singular form du  for a family member, close friend, fellow student, child, or animal. If spealng to two or  more of these, use the familiar plural form ihr. Use the formal form Sie (always  capitalized for one or more acquaintances, strangers, or anyone with whom you would  use Herr or Frau.   ● The third­person singular pronouns er, sie (she), and es reflect the grammatical gender of  the noun or person for which they stand (the antecedent).     The Verb: Infinitive and Present Tense:    In German, the basic form of the verb, the infinitive, consists of the verb stem plus the  ending ­en or, sometimes, just ­n       kommen   finden    ich  komme  finde     du  kommst  findest    er        sie  kommt  findet  es  wir  kommen  finden    ihr  kommt  findet    sie/Sie  kommen  finden      ● German has four different endings to form the present tense: ­e, ­(e)st, ­and ­en. English,  in contrast, has only one ending, ­(e)s, for the third­person singular (comes, goes).   ● Verbs with stems ending in ­d or ­t (finden, arbeiten) add an ­e­ before the ­st or ­t ending  (du findest, er arbeitet).  ● Verbs with stems ending in ­​ ß​ ­s, or ­z (hßen​, reisen, tanzen) and only a ­t in the du  form (du hei ßt, reist, tanzt).  ● The infinitive form of a verb can be used as a noun.     Use of Present Tense:  ● The present tense in German may express either something happening at the moment or a  recurring or habitual action.     Wolfgang spielt Karten    Wolfgang is playing cards.  Antje arbeitet viel             Antje works a lot.    ● It can also express a future action or occurence, particularly with an expression of time.   ● German has one form of the present tense (English has 3).       German  English    Hans dances really well  Hans tanzt wirklich gut  Hans is dancing really well    Hans does dance really well      Word Order in Sentences:    First Element (Subject,  Second Element (Verb)  Other Elements  Adverb, etc)  ich  studiere  Informatik in Deutschland  Nächstes Jahr  mache  Ich ein Praktikum  Heute  besuchen  Wir das Verkehrsmuseum    ● The conjugated verb is always the second element in a sentence.   ● The subject of the sentence can either precede or follow the verb.       Question Words:    Wann ​ kommst du?  When are you coming?  Was​  machst du?  What are you doing?  Wer ​ist das?  Who is that?  Wie ​findest du Berlin?  How do you like Berlin?  Wo​  wohnst du?  Where do you live?  Woher​  sind Sie?  Where are you from?     ● Word questions begin with an interrogative pronoun. They require specific information in  the answer.   ● The conjugated verb is the second element in a word question.   ● German uses only one verb form to formulate a question, in contrast to English        Where do you live?  Wo wohnst du?      Where are you living?      Definite Articles   ● German nouns are classified by grammatical gender as either masculinem feminine, or  neuter.   ● The definite articlesder​,die, and das (all meaningthe​ in German) signall the gender of  nouns.  


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