Week 7: Mood Disorders
Week 7: Mood Disorders PSYC 3330
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jae Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3330 at Tulane University taught by Constance Patterson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Mood Disorders 2/23 Moods- enduring states of feeling that influence our psychological functioning. Theories about causes of Depressed moods: Seligman's Learned helplessness theory (started from looking at learned helplessness to learned well-being) o People who are highly stressed develop a sort of anxiety about it o Experience hopelessness as stress continues o Thoughts towards self become negative (self-blaming for the stress in their life becomes all-encompassing) o Attitude towards life become negative in general o The person gives up o *** Model does NOT hold up for children Beck's Depressive Cognitive Triad: self/ own situation/ future o Distorted thinking keeps them from appreciating their whole self/ other capabilities Overly invested in controlling things o Feels overly responsible for everything bad that happens o Feel overly responsible for everything (bad) that happens o Constant feedback to self about failure o Negative self-evaluation – believes can’t do anything right o Thoughts become automatic and pervasive o Become increasingly negative about the world in general o See the future as negative – “nothing good can happen” o Self -fulfilling and self-perpetuating Cognitive Vulnerability for Depression: o Underlying biological susceptibility o Depression becomes associated with a pessimistic explanatory style and negative cognitions They consider themselves to be realistic by not expecting things to turn out well o Children with depressed mothers have impaired outcomes More affect from a mother than a father Children show depressive symptoms when faced with minor stress CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS Internal attribution- personal factors are responsible for outcome "I am smart so I did well on the exam" o Can be problematic if negative. "I did not do well because I am not smart." External attribution- some external factor is responsible for the outcome Stable Attribution- some ongoing factor that says "I am the kind of person who…" o Problematic if negative. Unstable Attribution- causes will be variable. "My poor grade is probably due to my heavy course load this term" Global attribution- an overarching interpretation of causes that can be applied to many situations "I am a lousy student" Specific Attribution- applies to particular situation but not others. ***likely to be an exam question SOCIAL AND SEX ROLE ISSUES Women tend to have more difficulties than men. o More likely to be depressed (70%) o Varies from culture to culture o Men and women experience bipolar disorders at about the same rate o Socialized sex roles are likely to contribute to different rates: Women may be socialized to endure whatever happens Women are socialized to connect and care for others and tend to worry / blame selves when things happen Women experience disproportionate poverty, sexual harassment and abuse; have less social power, tend to earn less, and are more likely to experience disrespect Men are socialized to take charge Can include multiple factors, for example, single mother with low wages, poor social resources, little social power o Marital Problems contribute to depression for both men and women o Men typically withdraw / Women get depressed INTEGRATIVE THEORY Genetic predisposition, Inadequate coping, Negative cognitive style • Overactive neurological response to stress in the environment (a general, likely to be an inherited tendency) • Psychological vulnerability (tendency to have negative or pessimistic thoughts; feelings of inadequacy) • When vulnerabilities are triggered by events, person may feel overwhelmed and “give up” • Stressful life events trigger stress hormones which affect neurotransmitter systems, changing brain chemistry • Interpersonal relationships serve to buffer the impact (Note: recent research has replicated the findings about the power of social support) • DEPRESSIVE MOODS Significant deviation in ongoing or episodic mood state Depression- negative mood state that persists for some period of time and includes: o Mood- feeling sad, down, sense of emptiness o Anhedonia- lose interest in the things they used to enjoy o Cognitive changes- negativity, difficulty concentrating, feeling guilty, feel inadequate o Physical impact- the feeling of being slowed down, unmotivated, difficulty starting/finishing things o Emotional impact- overwhelming sadness, may cry easily or become irritable Terms: o Self- denigration- disparaging or belittling oneself o Rumination- continually thinking about certain topics or reviewing events that have transpired o Grandiosity- an overvaluation of one's significance or importance MANIA (depression and mania are on a perceived continuum) They don't feel like they need sleep Can be very creative states for some Racing thoughts or flight of ideas Highly distractible Increase in activity may be goal directed or agitation Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have high potential for painful outcomes (sexual, investment, gambling, buying) Causes marked impairment in social, occupational or other activities Poses threat of harm to self or others Not due to substance abuse or medical condition ** patterns of depression and mania differ for individuals MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODE Five or more symptoms are present for at least the same two week period and represent a change from previous functioning: • Depressed mood most of the day, every day • Markedly diminished interest in almost all or all activities all day, every day • Significant weight loss (not dieting) or gain (e.g., more than 5% of body weight) or increase of loss of appetite • Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day • Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly everyday that can be observed by others • Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt • Diminished ability to concentrate or think, indecisiveness nearly every day • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, or an attempt • Cause significant distress • Symptoms are not better accounted for by another depressive disorder POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION • Eating and sleeping disturbances – either too much or too little • Anxiety - mind races with fears and worries and can’t shut it off. • Feelings of guilt and shame – a sense that they are “not doing this right,” convinced they are a bad mother • Anger and irritability. • Uncontrollable thoughts of harming or harm coming to the baby. • Just not feeling “like yourself.” Symptoms usually appear within the first three months after a baby is born, and peak around the four-month mark. Can go on for years if undiagnosed and untreated. About 10-20% of new moms have some level of depression beyond “baby blues” Thursday, 2/25 DYSTHYMIC DISORDER A pattern of mild depression (may be irritable mood in children) Occurs for an extended period of time (2 yrs. for adults/1 yr. for children) May include: o loss of appetite OR overeating o Insomnia or hypersomnia o low energy or persistent fatigue o low self-esteem or self-confidence o poor concentration, difficulty making decisions o feeling hopeless During the 2 yrs. Symptoms not absent more than 2 mo. at a time o There may have been a previous depressive episode if full remission (for at least 2 months) o There has never been a manic episode o Does not occur exclusively during a psychotic episode o Not due to substance abuse or medical condition o Symptoms cause significant distress or impairment (social/occupational/other) o Early onset: before 21; Late onset: 21 or older; Specify for most recent 2 years of disorder BEREAVEMENT • Normal response to death or loss • Usually lasts several weeks to several months • Mood state is often sad, overwhelming • May include difficulty concentrating, loss of motivation, physical slowing down, withdrawal from others *10 to 20% of bereaved people do not get over their grief easily and go on to develop a syndrome of complicated grief, characterized by an intense and persistent longing for the deceased, a sense of anger and disbelief over the death, and an overwhelming preoccupation with the lost one. o (DSM 5 includes grief for more than 2 weeks as a symptom of MDD) SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER o tendency to experience depressive symptoms in a long dreary season of winter o most common among young people and more common among women o Hypothesis: different cycles of light with seasons affect biological cycles and affect production of serotonin. Nto doing the type of differential diagnoses that needs to be done Recurring head injuries are more likely to develop mood disorders Development of childhood: o Old theories concluded that children do not get depressed o Mood is more likely to be agitated and difficult over sad o We don't know the prevalence because many kids do not get noticed or treated o TYPICAL CHILDHOOD PATTERENS o Infants- quiet, unresponsive, passive o Preschooler- withdrawn, inhibited, appears shy o Elementary ages- argumentative, combative o Teen- express feelings of guilt or hopelessness No one pattern adequately describes childhood patterns at any given age Adding mania complicates things, adds risk of physical injury Girls start to have higher rates of mood disorders at adolescence.
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