New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 5: Personality and Values

by: Alora Lornklang

Chapter 5: Personality and Values MGMT 3720

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Business > MGMT 3720 > Chapter 5 Personality and Values
Alora Lornklang
GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes will cover the learning objectives and vocabulary from Ch. 5.
Organizational Behavior
Dr. James D. Powell
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Organizational Behavior

Popular in Business

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alora Lornklang on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3720 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. James D. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at University of North Texas.


Reviews for Chapter 5: Personality and Values


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/18/16
MGMT 3720 Organizational Behavior Chapter Review Chapter 5: Personality and Values 1. Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.   Personality:  o The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts  with others.   Personality is measured through self­report surveys in which individuals  evaluate themselves on a series of factors.  Observer­ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality.   Use both observer ratings and self­report ratings of personality when making  important employment decisions.   Personality Determinants  o Heredity and environment (more so, heredity) o Heredity:  Factors determined at conception; one’s biological,  physiological, and inherent psychological makeup.   The ultimate explanation of the individual’s personality is the  molecular structure of the genes, located in chromosomes o Personality traits  Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior.  2. Describe the Myers­Brigg Type Indicator personality framework and its strengths and weaknesses.   Myers­Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) o A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people  into 1 of 16 personality types.   Respondents are classified as:       Extraverted (E) vs. Introverted (I)  Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive.   Introverts are quiet and shy.       Sensing (S) vs. Intuitive (N).   Sensing types are practical and prefer routine. They focus on  details.   Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big  picture.” o Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F).   Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems.   Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.       Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P).   Judging types want control and prefer order and structure.   Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous  The MBTI can be valuable for increasing self­awareness and providing career  guidance, but because results tend to be unrelated to job performance,  managers probably shouldn’t use it as a selection test for job candidates.  3. Identify the key traits in the Big Five Personality model.   Big Five Model:  o A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions.   These are Big Five factors o Extraversion:  A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable,  gregarious, and assertive.  o Agreeableness:   A personality dimension that describes someone who is good­ natured, cooperative, and trusting.  o Conscientiousness   A personality dimension that describes someone who is  responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.  o Emotional Stability   A personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm,  self­confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative) o Openness to experience   A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity.  4. Demonstrate how the Big Five traits predict behavior at work.    Extraversion:  Better interpersonal skills  Higher performance  Greater social dominance  Enhanced leadership  More emotionally expressive  Higher job and life satisfaction    Agreeableness:   Better liked  Higher performance  More compliant and conforming  Lower levels of deviant  behavior    Conscientiousness:  Greater effort and persistence  Higher performance   More drive and discipline  Enhanced leadership  Better organized and planning  Greater longevity     Emotional Stability  Less negative thinking and fewer negative emotions  Higher job and life satisfaction  Less hypervigilant  Lower stress levels     Openness to experience:  Increased learning  Training performance   More creative  enhanced leadership  More flexible and autonomous  More adaptable to change  The Dark Triad  A constellation of negative personality traits consisting of  Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy.   Machiavellianism a. The degree to which an individual is pragmatic,  maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.   Narcissism:  a. The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self­importance, require excessive admiration,  and have a sense of entitlement.   Psychopathy a. The tendency for a lack of concern for others and a  lack of guilt or remorse when their actions cause  harm  Approach­Avoidance Framework  The framework by which individuals react to stimuli, whereby  approach motivation is attraction to positive stimuli and  avoidance motivation to our aversion to negative stimuli.   While the approach has provided some important insights into  behavior in organizations, there are several unresolved issues.   Other personality Traits Relevant to OB  Core Self­Evaluation (CSE)  Bottom­line conclusions individuals have about their  capabilities, competence, and worth as a person.   Self­monitoring  A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to  adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.   Proactive personality   People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take  action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.  5. Describe how the situation affects whether personality predicts behavior.   Situation­strength Theory  A theory indicating that the way personality translates into  behavior depends on the strength of the situation  Researchers have analyzed situation strength in organizations in terms of 4 elements:     Clarity  The degree to which cues about work duties and  responsibilities are available and clear.   Jobs high in clarity produce strong situations because  individuals can readily determine what to do, thus  increasing the chances that everyone behaves similarly.    Consistency  The extent to which cues regarding work duties and  responsibilities are compatible with one another.   Jobs with high consistency represent strong situations  because all cues point toward the same desired behavior.     Constraints  The extent to which individuals’ freedom to decide or act is limited by forces outside their control  Jobs with many constraints represent strong situations  because an individual has limited discretion.     Consequences   The degree to which decisions or actions have important  implications for the organization or its members, clients,  supplies, etc.   This represents strong situations because the environment  is probably more heavily structured to guard against  mistakes  Trait Activation Theory (TAT)  A theory that predicts that some situations, events, or  interventions “activate” a trait more than others.  6. Contrast Terminal and Instrumental Values  Values:   Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end­state of  existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or  converse mode of conduct or end­state of existence  Value system:   A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.   Terminal values:   Desirable end­states of existence; the goals a person would like  to achieve during his or her lifetime.   Ex: Prosperity, economic success, freedom, world peace  Instrumental values  Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s  terminal values.   Ex: autonomy, self­reliance, personal discipline, kindness 7. Compare generational differences in value.   Baby boomers: large cohort born after World War II when veterans  returned to their families and the times were good  Age: 40s to mid 60s   Dominant work values: success, achievement, ambition, dislike  of authority, loyalty to career  Xers: shaped by globalization, two­career parents, MTV, AIDS and  computers  Age: Late 20s to early 40s  Dominant work values: Work/Life balance, team­oriented dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships  Millennials: Have high expectations and seek meaning in their work  Age: Under 30  Dominant work values: confident, financial success, self­reliant  but team­oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships  Personality­job fit theory  A theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that  the fit between personality type and occupational environment  determines satisfaction and turnover.   Person­Organization Fit  Essentially argues that people are attracted to and selected by  organizations that match their values, and they leave  organizations that are not compatible with their personalities.  8. Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.      Power distance:   A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a  society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is  distributed unequally.     Individual  vs. collectivism:   A national culture attribute that describes the degree to which  people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of  groups  Collectivism  A national culture attribute that describes a tight social  framework in which people expect others in groups of  which they are a part to look after them and protect them     Masculinity vs. femininity   Masculinity:   A national culture attribute that describes the extent to  which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are  characterized by assertiveness and materialism.   Femininity:  A national culture attribute that indicates little  differentiation between male and female roles; a high rating indicates that women are treated as the equals of men in all  aspects of the society.      Uncertainty avoidance  A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a  society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations  and tries to avoid them.      Long­term vs. short­term orientation   Long­term orientation  A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future,  thrift, and persistence  Short­term orientation  A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and  present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social  obligations. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.