Chapter 5: Personality and Values
Chapter 5: Personality and Values MGMT 3720
Popular in Organizational Behavior
Popular in Business
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alora Lornklang on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3720 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. James D. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at University of North Texas.
Reviews for Chapter 5: Personality and Values
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/18/16
MGMT 3720 Organizational Behavior Chapter Review Chapter 5: Personality and Values 1. Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it. Personality: o The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. Personality is measured through selfreport surveys in which individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors. Observerratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality. Use both observer ratings and selfreport ratings of personality when making important employment decisions. Personality Determinants o Heredity and environment (more so, heredity) o Heredity: Factors determined at conception; one’s biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup. The ultimate explanation of the individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in chromosomes o Personality traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. 2. Describe the MyersBrigg Type Indicator personality framework and its strengths and weaknesses. MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) o A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. Respondents are classified as: Extraverted (E) vs. Introverted (I) Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy. Sensing (S) vs. Intuitive (N). Sensing types are practical and prefer routine. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.” o Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F). Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions. Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P). Judging types want control and prefer order and structure. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous The MBTI can be valuable for increasing selfawareness and providing career guidance, but because results tend to be unrelated to job performance, managers probably shouldn’t use it as a selection test for job candidates. 3. Identify the key traits in the Big Five Personality model. Big Five Model: o A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions. These are Big Five factors o Extraversion: A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive. o Agreeableness: A personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting. o Conscientiousness A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. o Emotional Stability A personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, selfconfident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative) o Openness to experience A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity. 4. Demonstrate how the Big Five traits predict behavior at work. Extraversion: Better interpersonal skills Higher performance Greater social dominance Enhanced leadership More emotionally expressive Higher job and life satisfaction Agreeableness: Better liked Higher performance More compliant and conforming Lower levels of deviant behavior Conscientiousness: Greater effort and persistence Higher performance More drive and discipline Enhanced leadership Better organized and planning Greater longevity Emotional Stability Less negative thinking and fewer negative emotions Higher job and life satisfaction Less hypervigilant Lower stress levels Openness to experience: Increased learning Training performance More creative enhanced leadership More flexible and autonomous More adaptable to change The Dark Triad A constellation of negative personality traits consisting of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Machiavellianism a. The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. Narcissism: a. The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of selfimportance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement. Psychopathy a. The tendency for a lack of concern for others and a lack of guilt or remorse when their actions cause harm ApproachAvoidance Framework The framework by which individuals react to stimuli, whereby approach motivation is attraction to positive stimuli and avoidance motivation to our aversion to negative stimuli. While the approach has provided some important insights into behavior in organizations, there are several unresolved issues. Other personality Traits Relevant to OB Core SelfEvaluation (CSE) Bottomline conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person. Selfmonitoring A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Proactive personality People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs. 5. Describe how the situation affects whether personality predicts behavior. Situationstrength Theory A theory indicating that the way personality translates into behavior depends on the strength of the situation Researchers have analyzed situation strength in organizations in terms of 4 elements: Clarity The degree to which cues about work duties and responsibilities are available and clear. Jobs high in clarity produce strong situations because individuals can readily determine what to do, thus increasing the chances that everyone behaves similarly. Consistency The extent to which cues regarding work duties and responsibilities are compatible with one another. Jobs with high consistency represent strong situations because all cues point toward the same desired behavior. Constraints The extent to which individuals’ freedom to decide or act is limited by forces outside their control Jobs with many constraints represent strong situations because an individual has limited discretion. Consequences The degree to which decisions or actions have important implications for the organization or its members, clients, supplies, etc. This represents strong situations because the environment is probably more heavily structured to guard against mistakes Trait Activation Theory (TAT) A theory that predicts that some situations, events, or interventions “activate” a trait more than others. 6. Contrast Terminal and Instrumental Values Values: Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence Value system: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. Terminal values: Desirable endstates of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. Ex: Prosperity, economic success, freedom, world peace Instrumental values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values. Ex: autonomy, selfreliance, personal discipline, kindness 7. Compare generational differences in value. Baby boomers: large cohort born after World War II when veterans returned to their families and the times were good Age: 40s to mid 60s Dominant work values: success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority, loyalty to career Xers: shaped by globalization, twocareer parents, MTV, AIDS and computers Age: Late 20s to early 40s Dominant work values: Work/Life balance, teamoriented dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships Millennials: Have high expectations and seek meaning in their work Age: Under 30 Dominant work values: confident, financial success, selfreliant but teamoriented; loyalty to both self and relationships Personalityjob fit theory A theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover. PersonOrganization Fit Essentially argues that people are attracted to and selected by organizations that match their values, and they leave organizations that are not compatible with their personalities. 8. Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture. Power distance: A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Individual vs. collectivism: A national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups Collectivism A national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them Masculinity vs. femininity Masculinity: A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism. Femininity: A national culture attribute that indicates little differentiation between male and female roles; a high rating indicates that women are treated as the equals of men in all aspects of the society. Uncertainty avoidance A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. Longterm vs. shortterm orientation Longterm orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence Shortterm orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'