History 10 Week 7 Lecture Notes
History 10 Week 7 Lecture Notes Hist 10
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nancy Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see World History in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Week 7 | Thursday Outline: Mongols Temujin 1162-1227 AD Genghis Khan 1206 Kalka River 1223 Mstislav Russia 1240 Germany/Hungary 1241 Baghdad 1258 Ain Jalut 1260 Kubilai Khan 1264-1294 Today we will be talking about the largest empire in human history: the empire of the Mongols • the mongols came from Mongolia, which means they originated in east asia (north of china) • mongols were a typical barbarian tribe (mongols weren’t unified) o 1) do not practice agriculture (do not grow their own food) instead everything they needed they took from their animals (meaning the food they ate, the milk they drank, the clothes they wore, the tents they lived in, the alcohol they drank) § bc their animals were so important they were constantly on the move (nomads) looking for lands where the animals could graze/survive o 2) no settled homes o 3) little property o in regards to civilizations barbarian tribes were not advanced, no reading, writing, architecture, they didn’t find these things important HOWEVER barbarian tribes have had a big impact on history bc they excelled at war, they spent most of their time training and fighting (partly bc of necessity to defend their animals and lands & party bc they just liked to fight, they thought war was fun) § they developed superior military technology & tactics • they would prove to be the most successful of the barbarian tribes, by conquering one of the greatest empires in history Temujin Temujin’s father was killed after his birth causing hardship for his family, but he was able to overcome it and eventually begin to gain followers until finally he was able to UNIFY the Mongol people (for the first time in history) under his rule by 1206 • in honor of this, many Mongols came from all over Mongolia and proclaimed Temujin their new leader & gave him the title of “The Genghis Khan” The Genghis Khan • khan = leader, Genghis khan = leader of everything from ocean to ocean • once he unified Mongolia GK was not satisfied, he believed the mongols needed to go out and conquer an empire, why? Week 7 | Thursday 1) he believed Mongolia was too small for the amount of Mongol people it had, he believed they needed more living space so they needed more land to accommodate 2) he knew how war-like the mongols were, he believed if he didn’t find new enemies for the mongols to fight they would start fighting amongst themselves ruining his beautiful new Mongolia 3) he believed war is fun J and believed it was something to seek out § GK said, “There is nothing better in life than attacking your enemies…” SO he decides so go out and conquer (bicep emoji) § for the next 21 years, GK led the mongols to the conquest of a big empire, successful bc: 1) they had great leadership, GK was a great general (as were many of his sons and grandsons) 2) GK was not a typical barbarian leader, he did certain things in warfare that would not actually be tried until waaaaay later in history ex) before GK attacked anyone he sent out spies who would gather info about the enemy: big army? good army? obstacles? etc. 3) Mongols had a big and good army (~200,000 soldiers) all were cavalry (aka had horses), soldiers had grown up training or actually fighting = A LOT of endurance 4) Mongols had a unique horse that had a greater power of endurance, meaning they could ride long and quick 5) Mongols had developed a superior bow (as in bow & arrow) that could fire arrows 350 yards = HUGE reach advantage 6) Mongols used terror as a weapon, if anyone resisted they would just wipe out whole populations • Mongols would ask people to surrender before they attacked, if they surrendered the people were treated well as long as they paid taxes, but if they refused to surrender stuff got really bad really quick, most gov’ts liked to hide war crimes but the mongols bragged about it in order to scare their subjects • Mongols went YEARS (54) without losing a battle, people began to think they were invincible Battle of the Kalka River: one of the Mongol’s famous battles • battle was fought in S. Russia, Russia at this time was not unified, it was divided into dozens of independent states Week 7 | Thursday • Mongols fought against Prince Mstislav o before the mongols attacked they sent spies to learn everything they could about Mstislav’s army § they learned he had 80,000 soldiers and that they weren’t professionals (they would fight only when necessary = little time training), they learned that Mstislav was a good military commander (Mstislav the Daring) o Mongols sent 20,000 soldiers to attack Mstislav, Msti sent his 80,000 men § Mongols see the Russians and PRETEND to be afraid, they PRETEND to then flee in panic, of course they know Mstislav is “daring” so Mstislav and his army chase after the Mongols for a week along the banks of the Kalka River bc how are they going to try to invade and then flee? ú for the Mongols this is nothing, but after a week the Russian soldiers are exhausted and the Russian army begins to break up, that’s what the Mongols were waiting for and finally they ATTACK • Mongols fire their arrows and close in for the kill, Mongols DESTROY the Russian army and the MONGOLS WIN THE BATTLE OF THE KALKA RIVER Something else GK did (unlike a typical barbarian leader), was that even though the Mongols did not practice primogeniture GK doesn’t want his sons to fight to the death so he chooses one of this sons as his heir, Ogedei • bc of his great prestige everyone else accepts the decision, so when GK dies there is a peaceful transition of power and Ogedei becomes the new GK 1240 the Mongols finally complete the conquest of Russia • Mongol invasion marked the first (and only) time in history where there was a successful winter invasion of Russia After conquering Russia the Mongols moved on into Europe, one Mongol army went West into Germany and the other went S.West into Hungary (both in 1241) • Mongols win in both Germany and Hungary • During this era the Europeans had armor, but instead of protecting them the armor only slowed the European soldiers down There is pretty much nothing stopping the Mongols from conquering all of Europe BUT THEN Ogedi dies because of alcoholism so all of the important Mongols had to go back to Mongolia and choose a new leader • all of the Mongols are pulled out of Europe and sent to Russia, the Mongols never returned to Europe Mongol expansion then continued into the Middle East, in 1258 Baghdad is conquered and the population massacres Mongol armies continued West until 1260 (near Egypt) Week 7 | Thursday • BUT THEN history repeats itself, the Mongol leader in Mongolia dies, so all of the important Mongols have to go back and choose and new leader they pull out more of their armies and leave only 10,000 men stationed at Ain Jalut (Ain Jalut is where David fought Goliath) Ain Jalut is near Egypt, Egypt was an independent Muslim state • Egypt realized that most of the Mongols had been pulled back, 40,000 Egyptian soldiers then marched over to fight the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut and in a huge upset the EGYPTIANS DEFEATED THE MONGOLS o for the first time the people realized that the Mongols are not invincible, this is going to motivate people to rise up in rebellion & defend themselves against the Mongols Back in Mongolia they couldn’t agree on a new leader, so a Civil War breaks out • this was the first time in 54 years that the Mongols lost a battle AND fought each other Eventually the Civil War was won by one of GK’s grandson’s: Kubilai Khan • but not everyone accepted him as the new leader/GK and as a result the Mongol empire split apart into 4 provinces The Mongol Empire would NEVER be reunified, marking the turning point in the history of the Mongols After 1264, the Mongols never conquered any more territory, bc they lost their military edge, they are no longer training or fighting, they have been corrupted by the wealth and power they had acquired In conclusion: • The Mongol Empire was important to history bc for the first time all that land was under one gov’t and it made it very easy for people to travel around the world. • There was a great exchange of people and ideas during this time. • Marco Polo wrote an account about how great Asia was. • Columbus was inspired by Marco Polo, and found the Americas • Mongols Represent the end of a 5,000 year period of Human History, for this long barbarian tribes had a huge impact in regards to fighting and war, Mongols were a great example of military excellence. • Eventually new techniques and weapons would be developed • After the Mongols no barbarian tribe would have that huge of an impact on history
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