HLTH 101 week 4notes
HLTH 101 week 4notes Hlth 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kavisha Shroff on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hlth 101 at Towson University taught by Andrea Brace in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Wellness/Diverse Society in Nursing and Health Sciences at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
CHAPTER 9: Nutrition Body requires proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water—about 45 essential nutrients. The word essential means that you must get these substances from food because your body is unable to manufacture them, or at least do so fast enough to meet your physiological needs. The body needs some essential nutrients in relatively large amounts; these macronutrients include protein, fat, carbohydrate, and water. Micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, are required in much smaller amounts. Your body obtains nutrients through the process of digestion, in which the foods you eat are broken down into compounds your gastrointestinal tract can absorb and your body can use. A person needs about 2000 kilocalories per day to meet his or her energy needs. Proteins—The Basis of Body Structure o Proteins form important parts of the body's main structural components: muscles and bones. Proteins also form important parts of blood, enzymes, some hormones, and cell membranes. o When consumed, proteins also provide energy (4 calories per gram) for the body. o Recommended Protein Intake Adequate daily intake of protein for adults is 0.8 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight Fats—Essential in Small Amounts o Fats, also known as lipids, are the most concentrated source of energy, at 9 calories per gram. The fats stored in your body represent usable energy, they help insulate your body, and they support and cushion your organs. o Saturated and trans fatty acids raise blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol, thereby increasing a person's risk of heart disease. o Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as those found in olive and canola oils, may also increase levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), or “good” cholesterol, providing even greater benefits for heart health Carbohydrates—An Ideal Source of Energy o Carbohydrates are needed in the diet primarily to supply energy for body cells. Some cells, such as those found in the brain and other parts of the nervous system and in blood, use only carbohydrates for fuel. o During high intensity exercise, muscles also use primarily carbohydrates for fuel. o During digestion in the mouth and small intestine, your body breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugar molecules, such as glucose, for absorption. o The liver and muscles also take up glucose to provide carbohydrate storage in the form of glycogen. The AMDRs for protein, total fat, and carbohydrate are as follow: o Protein 10–35% of total daily calories o Total fat 20–35% of total daily calories o Carbohydrate45–65% of total daily calories Fiber is the term given to nondigestible carbohydrates provided by plants. Instead of being digested, like starch, fiber passes through the intestinal tract and provides bulk for feces in the large intestine, which in turn facilitates elimination. Vitamins—Organic Micronutrients o Vitamins are organic (carbon-containing) substances required in small amounts to regulate various processes within living cells. o Humans need 13 vitamins; 4 are fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K), and 9 are watersoluble (C and the B-complex vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, biotin, and pantothenic acid). Minerals—Inorganic Micronutrients o Minerals are inorganic (non–carbon-containing) elements you need in relatively small amounts to help regulate body functions, aid in the growth and maintenance of body tissues, and help release energy. o There are about 17 essential minerals. o The major minerals, those that the body needs in amounts exceeding 100 milligrams per day, include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The essential trace minerals, those that you need in minute amounts, include copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc. Water—Vital but Often Ignored o Water is the major component in both foods and the human body: You are composed of about 50–60% water. o Your need for other nutrients, in terms of weight, is much less than your need for water. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are standards for nutrient intake designed to prevent nutritional deficiencies and reduce the risk of chronic disease. Dietary Guidelines for Americans have been established to promote health and reduce the risk of major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. MyPyramid provides daily food intake patterns that meet the DRIs and are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Daily Values: A simplified version of the RDAs used on food labels; also included are values for nutrients with no RDA per se. Key Messages of MyPyramid: MyPyramid is designed to remind consumers to make healthy food choices and to be active every day. Key messages include the following: o Personalization o Daily physical activity o Moderation o Proportionality o Variety o Gradual improvement When it comes to nutrition, men and women have a lot in common. Both sexes need the same essential nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans apply equally to both. But beyond the basics, men and women need different amounts of essential nutrients and have different nutritional concerns. A PERSONAL PLAN: MAKING INFORMED CHOICES ABOUT FOOD o Reading Food Labels o Dietary Supplements o Using Food Labels o Protecting Yourself Against Foodborne Illness o Safe Food Handling CH 10 Exercise for Health and Fitness Physical fitness is the body's ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort—that is, to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly tired. Health-related fitness includes cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Healthrelated fitness helps you withstand physical challenges and protects you from diseases. 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high intensity. 2. Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. It depends on such factors as the size of muscle cells and the ability of nerves to activate muscle cells. 3. Muscular endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension—that is, to hold a muscle contraction for a long time or to contract a muscle over and over again. 4. Flexibility is the ability of joints to move through their full range of motion. 5. Body composition refers to the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body. 6. In addition to the five health-related components of physical fitness, the ability to perform a particular sport or activity may depend on skill-related fitness components such as speed, power, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time. Physical activity is any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy. Exercise refers to a subset of physical activity—planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body intended specifically to improve or maintain physical fitness. THE BENEFITS OF EXERCISE o Reduced Risk of Premature Death o Improved Cardiorespiratory Functioning o More Efficient Metabolism and Improved Cell Health o Improved Body Composition o Disease Prevention and Management People who are physically active experience many social, psychological, and emotional benefits. Numerous research studies have found evidence for the following benefits: o Reduced anxiety and depression o Improved sleep o Reduced stress o Enhanced self-esteem and sense of self-efficacy o Enhanced creativity and intellectual functioning o Improved interpersonal wellness Specificity: The training principle that the body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it. progressive overload: The training principle that placing increasing amounts of stress (exercise) on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness. The amount of overload needed to maintain or improve a particular level of fitness is determined in four dimensions: Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type. These dimensions of overload, represented by the acronym FITT isometric (static) exercise: The application of force without movement. isotonic (dynamic) exercise: The application of force with movement. GETTING STARTED AND STAYING ON TRACK o Selecting Instructors, Equipment, and Facilities o Eating and Drinking for Exercise o Choosing Exercise Footwear o Managing Your Fitness Program R-I-C-E principle: o Rest o Ice o Compression o Elevation Planning a Personal Exercise Program Step 1: Set Goals Step 2: Select Activities Step 3: Make a Commitment Step 4: Begin and Maintain Your Program Step 5: Record and Assess Your Progress
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