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Week 2 notes

by: mtraub

Week 2 notes PSYC100010


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About this Document

Covers chapter 2 and the second week of notes
General Psychology
Ly,Agnes Ruan
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by mtraub on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC100010 at University of Delaware taught by Ly,Agnes Ruan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Primary Goals of Science 1. Description—what does it look like, how often, what’s going on, etc (to descriptive studies) 2. Prediction— (correlational studies) 3. Control—isolating a factor (experimental studies) 4. Explanation—trying to make a causal statement (experimental studies) Scientific Method: —Theory —Hypothesis —Research —Support Theory or Fail to support Theory What makes a theory a good one? —It is falsifiable —It parsimonious (straight forward and simple) —You can generate multiple testable hypothesis Considerations for ALL types of study designs • Have we thought about the ethics of our study? • Is there informed consent? • How have we obtained our sample? How have we defined and measured our variable(s)? Are these reliable and accurate • measurements? • Have I assessed the validity of our variables’ definitions? • What kinds of conclusions can I make (or not make) given the study design? How do the study findings fare in terms of validity** • Asses external validity as well as internal validity 2/17/16 Descriptive Studies: —Naturalistic Observation —Seeing the action but not in the situation —Participant Observation —Part of the action and involved in the situation —Case study —study of one entity that is atypical —Self-Reports What are the advantages and disadvantages of each of the following: 1. Naturalistic Observation 1. +Outside, unbiased observation 2. +the participant doesn’t see you so there’s less reactivity 3. +Broader view 4. -Target behavior might not occur 5. -Might miss out on something specific because of distance 2. Participant Observation 1. +You can get a more hands on/personal experience 3. Case Studies 1. +Study and learn more about different issues 2. -Harder to get it to apply to a larger group of people 4. Self-reports 1. -you can make the situation very biased 2. -people can give socially desirable information instead of truth Correlational Studies: examines how two (or more) variables are related/ associated as they are —Researcher does NOT alter/manipulate. only measures Two main disadvantages to correlational studies: —Directionality problem: unable to tell which variable affects the other, bidirectional error prevents making a causal statement —Third variable problem: there could be an external variable(s) affecting the measured data in a study Experimental Studies: experimenter manipulates the independent variable Random assignment produces two groups that are equivalent and prevents selection bias


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