Psychology Notes Exam 2, 2/18/16
Psychology Notes Exam 2, 2/18/16 1557
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Psychopathology: Definitions of Abnormal Behavior Traditional definitions and their criticism -Deviation from the norm: a person is different from the average person problem: people can be different yet still not negatively abnormal ex) being extremely intelligent -Maladaptive behavior: the behavior is bad for the person problem: many behaviors are maladaptive but not abnormal ex) working overtime and having a heart attack; dangerous sports -Subjective Distress: the person is suffering (depression, stress) problem: certain behaviors that are abnormal aren’t associated with suffering David Rosenhan’s Studies First Study: -Tried to define abnormal behavior -sent students to psychiatric hospitals with fake schizophrenia and had them act normal and they stayed at the hospitals for a month -after they returned he got their records and the hospital staff had interpreted their normal behaviors as abnormal ex) one guy worked on a school paper everyday and they said he was obsessively writing Second Study: -contacted hospitals and told them that he was sending fake patients and that he wanted them to identify them -never sent any fake patients -hospitals reported that 30% of their patients were fake *Behavior is abnormal because of our expectations, and it depends on the context of the behavior on whether or not we consider it to be abnormal. Thomas Szasz’s Theory -Argued that in our society we make judgements (morally) and don’t approve of certain behaviors and use mental illness to control and explain those negatively judged behaviors Michel Foucault -Noticed that over the past 1,000 years more and more people are being considered to be abnormal → because society changed and became more organized and judgemental with higher expectations of people Psychopathology: Diagnostic System Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition (DSM-V) -defines types of problems by specifying symptoms of disorders advantage→ makes precise definitions disadvantages→ well defined makes it hard for people who don’t have all the symptoms to be professionally diagnosed, as well as some symptoms aren’t always the same in every problem Psychopathology: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety States→ when a person experiences anxiety/fear but doesn’t have a specific trigger for the reaction -Generalized Anxiety: when someone feels anxious all the time (most people aren’t aware of it) -Panic Attacks: occasional overwhelming fear that happens for no reason *Severe problem because of the consequences such as causing a harming accident or a scene. Most people avoid doing things because of these consequences. Phobias→ experiences of fear triggered by something specific -Agoraphobia A person is afraid of public places (ex. supermarket) A person is afraid of being at a place in which they can’t escape -Social Phobia: feeling anxious because they are afraid of the negative judgement of others Specific: if a person get anxious when in a specific activity ex) speaking publicly Generalized: afraid of any interaction with others -Specific/Simple Phobia: being afraid of a specific thing -tons of them -extremely common, everyone has at least 1 ex) spiders, mice, darkness, heights Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessions: thoughts people don’t want to have Compulsions: behaviors people need to do -most involve checking or cleaning things -have to repeat the action like they don’t believe that they already did it -anxiety occurs when they try and fight the obsessions and compulsions Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder -after an extremely stressful event the person experiences after effects such as nightmares and different way of reliving the event -some get past it after a certain amount of time, but others don’t -war veterans especially are effected
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