End of Seedless Vascular and Beginning of Gymnosperms
End of Seedless Vascular and Beginning of Gymnosperms BIOL 1030
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at Auburn University taught by Debbie Folkerts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS , P HYLUM M ONILOPHYTA A. Pterophytes –true ferns, largest group B. Psilophytes- whisk “ferns” C. Arthrophytes-one genus Equisetophytes or horsetails a. Equisetophyta is the nominate genus: the genus the phylum is named for. b. Have silicoui2 (SiO ) in cell walls at the top of their stem that make them “scrub-like” c. Contain nodes (location that leaves are attached) and internodes (places in between nodes) d. Leaf arrangements: i. Alternate: leaves do not sprout from the opposite sides of the same node, but alternate ii.Opposite: leaves do sprout from the same node, on opposite sides iii.Whorl: many leaves from the same node: This plant e. Microphyll: small leaf f. Sporophyte dominated life cycle g. Stobilus: knob-like structure at the end of the stem where sexual reproduction happens; modified stem with modified leaves. i. Short internodes ii.Leaves serve as a cluster of sporophylls 1. Sporangiaphores: modified leaves on sporophylls; structures that bear the sporangia: the actual spore containers. a. Inside the spore containers diploid cells meiosis produce spores (meiospores) surrounded by elaters (hygroscopic, push meiospores out of sporangia) P HYLUM L YCOPHYTA ( CLUB MOSSES ) A. Microphylls and opposite arrangement B. Stobilus and megaspores and microspores a. Small spores lead to male structures b. Large spores lead to female structures c. This results in different gametes C. Heterospory: different spores D. Life cycle: Sporophyte meiosis megaspores/microspores megagametophytes/microgametophytes eggs/ sperm fertilization seed sporophyte S UPER P HYLUM G YMNOSPERMS —4P HYLA A. Heterspory B. Most without flagellated sperm (don’t need water) C. Separation of male and female life cycle in gametophyte generation a. Males disperse as a macrogametophyte (pollen grain) b. Females are retained in the megasporangia that created it. D. Seed: resistant to harsh conditions; can be dormant; can disperse; Has a 3 layered structure: a. “Baby in a lunch box” b. Baby: the embryo c. Lunch: Endosperm d. Box: Seed coat Phylum Coniferophyta A. Monoecious: one house for both sexes ( the female and male cones grow on the same tree) B. (Dioecous: two separate houses.) C. Ovule: contain megasporangium, megasporophyte, inegument, and some sporophyte tissue. The outer layers of ovule become the seed coat or “box” D. **Meiosis always produces 4 parts; 1 bigger one that retains the majority of the cytoplasm and three smaller ones that die. The bigger one grows into a megagametophyte which produces gamete containers** E. Life cycles: a. Male: Pollen cone microsporangiate microgametophytes (pollen) b. Female: seed cone ovule archegonia egg and gap for pollen tube. c. Sporophyte monoecious tree (mega…/micro…) meiosis gametes syngamy Zygote in seed dispersal germination growth sporophyte F. THE MALES a. Pollen cone = microsporangiate strobilus Microsporophylls: leaves modified to bear microsporangium or pollen sacs. Microsporocytes are diploid cells that will produce the spores (microspore mother cells) b. Each microsporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce a tetrad (4 cells) or microspores. c. Each microspore (n) undergoes mitosis to grow into a macrogametophyte (pollen); 4 cell unit. 1. 2 Prothallial cells with air bladders 2. Tube cell 3. Generatiive cells that release sperm d. The megagametophyte is pushed by the wind and pollinates by: i. Growing a long tube ii. Generative cell falls down iii. Mitosis produces two sperm cells G. THE FEMALES a. Female cone = seed cone = ovulate cone = megasporangiate strobilus b. Megasporophylls: woody, scale like leaves that bear ovule and megasporangium. Megasporo phylls Ovulate scale complex c. Ovulate scale complex i. Integuments ii. Micropyle: little hole iii. Megasporangium = nucellus: pollen tube grows through this to get to egg iv. Megasporocyte (2n): megaspore mother cell d. The megasporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce four cells. The cytoplasm mostly goes to one however and the other three die. This one becomes the megaspore (n) e. The megaspore undergoes mitosis to produce the megagametophyte f. The megagametophyte Megagametophyte makes eggs H. THE EMBRYO I. The pollen tube enters the micropyle and fertilizes the egg. J. Syngamy occurs to produce a zygote (2n) and the Pollen tube beginning of a new sporophyte generations. -Cotyledons: The Embryo embryonic seed leaves -Epicotyl: above the -Embryo (2n) cotyledons; from zygote meristem of plant -Endosperm that will be above ground: shoot (n): from the megagametop meristem, apical meristem hyte -Hypocotyl: -Seed coat (2n) embyotic stem; from connects root integuments meristem and shoot meristem -Radicle: embryonic root meristem Example: Pinus palustris –longleaf pine Pinus Pyrophyte: requires fire Pinaceae Red heart disease causes discoloration and hollow center; good for the Pinales Red-cockaded woodpecker which is endangered and makes its nest in hollows Pinopsida ***Grows slower and can be used for lumber unlike most pines used for pulp Coniferophyta Plantae Euk.
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