HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 15-19, 2016
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 15-19, 2016 HIST 1020
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
February 1519, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan IMPERIALISM India became the “jewel and the crown;” it was the most important of the British colonies. Britain had a presence in India before the period of imperialism o East India Company: joint stock company, company of investors, royally th chartered, traded in the East Indies (17 century) o India was under control of the Mughals, who were Muslims – bestowed a period of political unity (they allowed the East India Company in and allowed them to build forts) o They were buying Chinese goods in addition to Indian goods (British developed an appetite for coffee and tea) The event that destroyed Mughal power in India was the Sepoy Revolt (1857). o Sepoy – an Indian soldier in the British army o Sepoy Revolt – the British military was asking the Sepoys to use a new cartridge in their rifles (had to tear off paper with mouth, but there was animal fat in it – so this was a social/cultural problem because they couldn’t eat meat), this resulted in an uprising on behalf of the Sepoy troops, it takes the British a year to end this revolt, during this time thousands of British soldiers died and hundreds of thousands of Indians died When the revolt was over, British soldiers made the Indians eat meat – the British government was able to clamp down on the peoples of this area. It was the end of Mughal power in India; it was replaced with British control. They passed acts to create a branch of government over India. o Government was known as the Raj. The Raj was huge and elaborate – Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India in 1877. o The British really just wanted control over trade in India. They began especially importing coffee, tea, and exporting opium to China. th Opium was being sold in the 19 century to China. China will go to war with Britain over the huge exports of Opium to the nation. Impact of British rule in their imperialized nations (i.e. India): o Western Education – it was a good thing for Indian elites, but a lot of the Indians didn’t have access to the education o Railroads – the British built railroads across the nation February 1519, 2016 o Banking and Mining – this helped the Indian economy and overall was a good thing o Landholdings – India went from a place where land was held by small, collective villages, when Britain came in they encouraged the production of cash crops, this destroyed the idea of the village, wealthy land owners were encouraged to buy huge plots of lands and grow these goods, peasants were driven off the land and into cities to look for work (they lived in extreme poverty) o Textile Industries – the production of cotton and silk textiles was very important to India (known for their printed cloth), the British drowned their companies with cheap cotton and goods, this destroyed the hand crafted Indian cotton industry o Caste System – the British presence made this system rigid, they didn’t understand the fluid system already in existence, they reinstated the four main castes and got rid of all the subcastes o Poverty – the British presence made a lot of the Indian population poorer The Scramble for Africa began with the Berlin Conference of 1885, which was a great meeting of European powers to decide how they would partition Africa. They wanted to seek treaties with Africans already there (offer protection to local African rulers and their people). o These protection treaties became their way of legitimating the scramble; it became a freeforall to take over Africa. o The machine gun gave Europeans a huge advantage over the Africans in trying to take control. Europeans even went to war with each other over these new lands. Boer War: took place in South Africa, the Dutch were the first Europeans to move into South Africa (Boers: “farmers”), they spoke Afrikaans and were referred to as Afrikaners, the British start to move in around 1790 The Boers move north (Great Trek) to try and get away from the British, they move into the Orange Free State and Transvaal. They find diamonds, and now the British want in on this industry. Cecil Rhodes – British businessmen who wanted to control the diamond and gold industry (did open a diamond industry) This led to a war between the British and the Dutch (Boers/Afrikaners), and they eventually establish the Union of South Africa. King Leopold II (Belgium) taking of the Congo really sparked the beginnings of the scramble. He took that colony with the help of Henry Stanley, who went in February 1519, 2016 and negotiated a number of treaties (“protection treaties”) to gain power over the peoples. The Congo became like Leopold’s own personal colony. o Regime of Terror – he used force of power to force the people to cooperate and listen to him (extreme terrorism) o Force Publique (FP) – the police force Leopold used, was an unthinkable phenomenon, went into villages and forced people to accept his policies, wanted people to agree with his labor policies (enslavement) Rubber and ivory are the two commodities Leopold is trying to extract from the colony. He was very brutal, as high as 10 million people died under Leopold. The FP would rape or even kill people who didn’t comply. This was the most brutal regime in Africa. He would cut off people’s hands that didn’t comply. o Edmund Morel – office worker in Liverpool, England, journalist, his suspicion was aroused when he saw ships coming in with rubber and leaving with weapons, he began to call attention to the horrors in the Congo, brought it up with Parliament, they held hearings to determine what was happening in the Congo Nations get together and force Leopold to moderate his policies. ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR I Nationalism – a major force in European history in the 19 and early 20 th centuries, it promotes conflict based on ethnicity, religion, etc. o MultiNational Empires – Ottoman Empire, Russia, AustroHungarian Empire (Hapsburg inheritance, includes Austria, Hungary, and other areas), there are a lot of Slavic people in the AustroHungarian Empire, and the Slavs are feeling very nationalistic, they want to break away o Balkans – this area was a hot spot (Serbia and BosniaHerzegovina in particular), it had been under control of the Ottoman Empire, but the empire has been falling apart (“sick man of Europe”), the Balkans is so th complex (different Slavic people, religion, ethnicity, etc.), in the 19 century they start to come apart and form their own states (especially Serbia), not all Serbs live in Serbia (a lot live in BosniaHerzegovina), they want to bring BosniaHerzegovina into Serbia so they can all be together Diplomacy – another cause of the war, Otto von Bismarck is back, he designed a diplomatic system for continental Europe (he is all about Realpolitik – never commit to one force of action, pragmatic), he knew that a united German was not an easy pill for the rest of Europe to swallow, Russia, Italy, and Britain were not happy, negotiated a diplomatic alliance with AustriaHungary February 1519, 2016 o Bismarckian System – alliance with AustriaHungary, then alliance with Russia, then alliance with Italy (Germany, Austria, Russia, and Italy), this locks up the power in Europe except for France (isolation of France was the goal) Bismarck later fell from power. The successors of Bismarck meet and do not renew the alliance with Russia. France then goes in and picks up Russia. The Germans tried to get England on their side, but the British are very suspicious. It drives Britain into the arms of France. o Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, and Italy o Triple Entante – Russia, France, and Britain Because the Triple Alliance is sandwiched between the Triple Entante, it makes them nervous about fighting a two front war. They created two balanced sides, but there will be a chain reaction when push comes to shove. Arms Race – another cause of the war, competitive to stockpile huge arsenals, industrialization allowed nations to arm their soldiers easily, but it meant that as soon as one power mobilized no one would back down o Mobilization essentially was seen as a declaration of war. Bosnia (capital is Sarajevo) and Herzegovina have a lot of Serbian nationalism, Serbia hates Austria o June 28, 1914 – the heir to the throne of Austria makes a trip to Sarajevo, the car is open, try to make life better for the Serbs in Bosnia, but a Serbian nationalist assassinates both Franz Ferdinand and his wife (this started World War I), Austria is outraged and they give Serbia an ultimatum: First, they wanted an apology from Serbia. Second, they insisted on being a part of the investigation in trying to find the assassin. Serbia agreed with a lot of it, but did not want their police force in the nation because it took away from their being. July 28 – AustriaHungary declares war on Serbia July 29 – Russia mobilizes July 31 – AustriaHungary mobilizes, Germany issues an ultimatum to Russia (says to back off and demobilize) August 1 – Germany mobilizes and declares war on Russia, Britain mobilizes fleet August 3 – Germany declares war on France and invades Belgium August 4 – Britain issues an ultimatum to Germany (asks them to respect Belgium neutrality), they essentially declare war August 6 – AustriaHungary declares war on Russia February 1519, 2016 August 11 – France declares war on AustriaHungary August 12 – Britain declares war on AustriaHungary
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