Psy2012 Week 6 of notes
Psy2012 Week 6 of notes PSY2012
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at Florida State University taught by Melissa Shepard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Psychology Chapter 5: Sleep and Dreams, Psychoactive Drugs Consciousness Your subjective experience of the world o Each person’s consciousness is different from each other o Each person’s consciousness is subject to continuous change Consists of o Our awareness of ourselves and our environment o All of our perceptions, thoughts and feelings o Our ‘internal monologue’ How do we study consciousness? o There is a paradox with consciousness On one hand, it is possibly the most intimate and obvious part of who we are (thoughts and feelings) On the other hand, is is perhaps the most difficult aspect of human experience to describe and/or study It is very difficult for people to describe their consciousness o We study it through attention The concentration of our mental activity Allows our cognitive processes to take in selective aspects of our world Showing a flashlight into a dark closet You have potential to pay attention to many different things but you will only be paying attention to certain aspects at one time o We don’t experience everything at one time Problems: we have a limited capacity for attention Attention’s Limits Inattentional blindness: Our failure to notice unexpected objects that appear in our visual field o When there are unexpected items in our visual field, they may go unnoticed o Ex: When the gorilla came into the video and then a player left the screen while we were focusing on how many times the basketball was passed Went unnoticed Change blindness: The failure to detect changes in an object or scene o Ex: We did not notice the curtain change color while not expecting it o Ex: Pedestrians not noticing that the first person they were talking to changed after he switched with someone carrying a door between them Even though we can not attend to everything, we do process a great deal more than we are aware we are processing Sleep Sleep is an essential, biologically motivated behavior Why do psychologists study sleep? o Sleep affects behavior Sleep is a behavior (we choose when and when not to sleep) o Sleep is an altered state of consciousness o Sleep is affected by psychological factors (stress) o Sleep affects psychological factors (when you don’t get enough sleep, your emotion regulation is thrown off) Most people spend about 36% of their lives sleeping Why we need sleep The night/dark is dangerous and sleep protects us form potential injuries/dangers often in the night o Seeing a wolf, stumbling across roots Sleep has important biological functions o During sleep, the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone(HGH) Important for children’s maturation o Sleep affects hormones associated with appetite and metabolism Correlational research between sleep and weight gain (people who sleep less tend to weigh more) Experimental research keeping track of people’s weight while assigning different sleep patterns o Sleep helps us recuperate Helps us restore depleted reserves of energy, repair cells and recover physical abilities Helps our immune system Sleep aids our attention o Drowsy driving causes people to not be able to pay attention as well o Lowers response time o When you pay attention to information, it is more likely for that information to be stored in your memory People who sleep better have better attention ability Sleep allows for memory consolidation o Interference: you can confuse memories with each other o Decay: fading of memories Sleep affects our mood o Higher levels of happiness Sleep feeds creative thinking o Higher ability to list more creative forms of transportation Why we Sleep Circadian Rhythm o Our daily cyclic rhythm that lasts 24-25 hours o The suprachiasmatic nucleus is responsible for our circadian rhythm Light triggers the increase or decrease of melatonin When there is a lot of light, we have low levels of melatonin When there a less light, more melatonin is produced o When melatonin is produced, we tend to feel tired and fatigued and that’s why we sleep Stages of Sleep There are 5 stages of sleep o The Non-REM happens in stages 1-4 Minimal/no eye movements, less dreams o REM sleep is in stage 5 Quick eye movements, vivid dreams o Adults will cycle through all five stages of sleep in 90 minutes. They will repeat through the night o About 50% of our time sleep is in stage 2 o About 20% is in REM sleep (stage 5) EEGs o Frequency (how often brain activity is occurring in sleep) o Amplitude (intensity of brain activity) o Will look different for people in different stages in sleep) o Used to determine if someone is having vivid dreams Non-REM Sleep Stage 1 o Very drowsy and very easy to wake up from o Transitions quickly into stage 2 (maybe even a minute) o Theta waves are present o You may not even know you’re asleep Stage 2 o Autonomic system slows down (brain waves, heart rate) o Body temperature decreases o Muscles relax o Sleep spindles and K complexes Stages 3 and 4(Deep/Delta Sleep): o Deep sleep o Large amplitude delta waves are more frequent o No eye movement/muscle activity REM sleep “Rapid Eye Movement Sleep” o Eyes move rapidly back and forth under their eyelids Stage of sleep where o The brain is most active o Pulse/blood pressure pick up Pick up in autonomic activity o Vivid dreams often occur (If you were woken up during REM sleep, you would remember the dreams) Also referred to as paradoxical sleep REM rebound o People fight to get back into REM sleep Theory that there is a biological function of REM sleep because of this Dreams NREM dreams o Shorter and repetitive o More thought like o Concerned with daily tasks or to-do lists Boring dreams REM dreams o More dreams o Emotional and illogical Make no sense or make you over-emotional o Prone to plot shifts o Much more interesting that NREM dreams Why do we dream? Unsure exactly why we dream, but they are involved in o Processing emotional memories o Integrating new experiences with established memories o Learning new strategies and ways of doing things (If you encountered this event in real life, you’d be better able to cope) o Reorganizing and consolidating memories Hippocampus and Cortex are responsible for dreams Freud’s Dream Protection Theory o Manifest content is the actual thing happening in the dream o Dreams are “often” wish fulfillments If not, will still tell you something with an underlying meaning o The Latent content is also important (underlying meaning) Flying Sexual Desire Riding a horse or shooting a gun Desire sex o This is an old theory so there is no supporting evidence Contra Freud Dreams of wish fulfillment and “sex dreams” are usually fairly infrequent Most dreams just contain ordinary events Activation Synthesis Theory o Dreams result from random neural transmission and interpretation o Dreams reflect inputs from brain activation originating in the pons, which the forebrain then attempts to weave into a story o Dreams are a result of complex changes in brain activity Contra Activation-Synthesis Theory o Emphasizes the role of the forebrain in dreaming If you have damage to the forebrain, you may totally eliminate dreams (even if the pons is properly functioning) o Dreams may be consistent/connected over time (they’re not always random) The forebrain connects recurring dreams o Dreams are often driven by motivational and emotional control centers of the forebrain (these are more prevalent in the forebrain than the pons) Neurocognitive Theory o Dreams are a meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which shape what we dream about o As our brain develops (adults), our dreams will become more complex/advanced o Evidence: Adults’ dreams are more complex than children’s dreams Sleep Recommendations o The amount of sleep we need decreases as we age o College students need 7-9 hours of sleep o If you don’t sleep one night, you are in sleep debt and need to make it up the following night Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs affect our consciousness o They contain chemicals that are similar to the chemicals in our brains so they alter the chemicals in our brain which affects us Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that change perceptions and mood through their actions at the neural synapses (where the chemicals in our brain communicate with one another) o They stimulate, inhibit or mimic the activity of the brain’s natural chemical messengers, the neurotransmitters. o Neurotransmitters allows neurons to communicate with each other Cells in our nervous system Chemical messengers Psychoactive drugs interfere with the normal processes of our neurotransmitters Drugs affect perception o Drugs interfere after sensation o Transmitting of the sensation from our physical environment is effected o Cognitive impairment is common Impaired attention, memory, abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities Ex: Ecstasy inhibits the uptake of serotonin Key terms: o Tolerance: Needing more and more of a drug to achieve the desired effects o Withdrawal: Discomfort and distress that follow reduction or stopping of use Symptoms are different for different drugs o Physical Dependence: Continued use to avoid physical withdrawal symptoms o Psychological Dependence: Continued use motivated by intense cravings or the desire to achieve a psychological effect/ avoid negative psychological effects Why People use and Abuse Drugs There is not an “addictive personality” but there are certain traits that tie to drug use o Impulsivity o Does using drugs cause certain personality traits or do certain personality traits influence the use of drugs? Whether or not you choose to use drugs is affected by what your family/ culture does Genetic influences: There is a genetic component for drug use/abuse o Some have higher heritability than others Learning/Expectancies: What you learn/ what you have expected is congruent with how you act o If you expect to feel calm after marijuana use, it is likely that your experience will mimic your expectations Depressants Alcohol and sedative-hypnotics depress the effects of the CNS o Sometimes people take such large quantities that lead to extreme cases (coma, death) Alcohol o The most widely used and abused drug in our society o Has stimulating effects (relaxation, talkative, impaired judgment) at low doses, but depressant effects (reduced attention, reduced concentration, reduced muscle coordination) at higher doses o BAC Women experience the effects of alcohol more heavily They have lower amounts of water in our bodies They have less enzymes that break down alcohol Hormones affect the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream How people expect to respond to alcohol is usually how they do respond Expectations affect social behavior Sedative Hypnotics o Prescribed to people who have trouble falling asleep or have anxiety o Barbiturates o Non-barbiturates o Benzodiazepines Valium Most widespread use and can be highly addictive Stimulants Rev up the CNS, increasing our heart rate, respiration and blood pressure Nicotine from tobacco is the most widely used o Highly addictive (activates acetylcholine receptors) o The affects begin after only 10 seconds o Smokers often report feelings of stimulation as well as relaxation and alertness Cocaine is the most powerful, natural stimulant o Users report euphoria, enhanced mental and physical capacity, a decrease in hunger and a decrease in pain o Increases the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain Amphetamines (Adderall) o Prescribed to people with ADHD People who don’t have ADHD will get take them to elevate their mood of suppress fatigue People who are prescribed the drug can take it too much to continue euphoria, but then experience depression once stopping o Suppresses appetite o Methamphetamines (crystal meth) Usually a higher purity level than amphetamines High dependence and risk of overdoes Narcotics Derived from opium (opiates) o Opioids: fake Opiates that relieve pain and induce sleep Heroin, morphine, codeine o Heroin is the most powerful and most abused opiate (90% of opiate users) o High level of dependence Right now, more people die from narcotics than car accidents Psychedelics LSD, PCP, Ecstasy, Marijuana Have hallucinogenic properties o Produce dramatic alterations in perception, mood and thought Marijuana is the most used illegal drug in the U.S. o Subjective effects are due to THC chemical o High within a few minutes and stays for a half hour o Physiological effects include increased heart rate, red eyes, dry mouth LSD: synthetic drug created in 1938 o Created from a fungus that grows on rye bread o Effects may stem from interference with serotonin levels Ecstasy (MDMA) o Stimulant and a hallucinogenic o Causes release of huge amounts of serotonin