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CDAE 002: Week 5

by: Molly Skrable

CDAE 002: Week 5 CDAE 002

Molly Skrable

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These notes cover the next core area of agricultural development: MesoAmerica. Then they head into the 3rd Era of Development: Colonialism and Plantation Agriculture
World Food, Population and Development
Dr. Shoshanah Inwood
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Skrable on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
World, Food, Population and Sustainable Development Week 5 Core Areas of Agricultural Development continued… MesoAmerica - Settled communities began around 2,000 BC - The region was slow to develop agriculture, led to lots of variation - MAIZE o Domesticated from teosinte o Small grain with a high genetic variability § Development of cities followed the size of the cob o Wild vs. domesticated - Chinampas o Small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds o Opposite of monocultures § Multiple crops between each raised bed § RESILIENT - Domesticated animals o Selectively bred in captivity and modified form wild ancestors o Used by humans who control the animal’s breeding and food supply - Seed Saving o Heirloom “any garden plant that has a history of being passed down within a family” o Centuries ago, there were many various varieties of each vegetable § Now there is less than 20 for each… o Of the 7,000 crop species domesticated by humans: § 30 species provide 90% of the global caloric intake § 3 provide more than 50% (wheat, rice, and corn) o Why do seeds matter today? § Cultural connections § Agricultural biodiversity § Food security § Population § Hunger § Production Systems § Food Access - World Population Growth o How are we doing to feed everyone? o 2008 marked the change from majority rural to majority urban - Agriculture o Subsistence Agriculture § Farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families § Small scale sustainable farms o Farming for the market § Growing to sell ERA OF DEVELOPMENT 3: COLONIALISM & PLANTATION AGRICULTURE China - 1400s China was the richest in the world - Epicenter of trade à social, economic, political systems o Pottery and silk - Don’t have high levels of consumption - 1400s-1500s… Europe’s economic power grew and China declined (power shift) Europe - Columbus o Explorer or merchant sailor? o Working for the Spanish, went on the expedition in order to bring back gold for the King and Queen o 1 found land: HISPANIOLA § Now known as Haiti/Dominican Republic § Indigenous people: Arawaks • Helped when the ship came, “never said no” –Columbus § Couldn’t find gold, needed to bring something back to the King and Queen • Enslaved Arawaks • Sold 10-11 aged girls to the sex trade o Second Expedition: Back to Hispaniola § Sent the Arawaks into mines to find gold, had a quota each day and if it wasn’t reached, their arms/legs were cut off § Arawaks had to stop having children because they didn’t see their spouse for 8-10 months, too tired to procreate when together, and decided that mass suicide and aborting children were better than having them live and be tortured o His impact § 1496: 2-8 million people § 1514: 27,000 people § 1542: 200 people § In one century, 95-98% of the indigenous population died - How do we know all of this? o Bartolome de las Casas § Witnessed Hispaniola § Started as a plantation owner, realized how horrible what he was doing was, freed his slaves What is Colonialism? - Policy and practice of a power extending control over weaker peoples or areas - Control by one power over a dependent area or people - European Colonialism o 1500s: Spain and Portugal o 1600s: British and French o Tendencies during this period: § Grab for land § Movement of people • Slaves, indentured servants § Transfer of wealth - Transfer of wealth o Natural Resources § Spanish in America…all they wanted was the silver and gold o Economic Transformation § Dutch East India Company PLANTATION AGRICULTURE Plantation: large area of land that is privately or government owned and employs resident labor to cultivate a single commercial crop - Plantation: big field of a monocrop! o Need large acreage o Reliance on one export crop o Cheap and abundant labor - Sugar o Sugar Cane Sugar Beets § 80% 20% o Why was sugar desirable? § Could use unskilled labor § Can be grown on a large scale § There were lucrative and growing markets in Europe o Who benefits from sugar? § Planters, slavers, shippers, bankers, refiners, grocers, government officials - Sugar led to the Triangle Trade o MIDDLE PASSAGE: HORRIBLE § Slaves held 23 inches apart § Takes 6 weeks to 3 months - Slavery AFRICA EUROPE Seen as subordinate family members Seen as private property Land was common, so the more family Needed people to work the land to in your house, the more land you got make money


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