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World Civ 1 Honors

by: Shanna Beyer

World Civ 1 Honors HIST 1110

Marketplace > University of Memphis > History > HIST 1110 > World Civ 1 Honors
Shanna Beyer
University of Memphis
GPA 3.9

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Chapter 6 Classical China
World Civilization I Honors
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 6: Classical China Confucius • Kong Fuzi (551-479 BCE) • Junzi (“superior individuals”): One who possesses virtue, through education, and, thus, right to rule (as scholar- bureaucrats). • Ren: Benevolence, kindness, humanity, courtesy. • Li: Sense of propriety, respectfulness, deference to elders, superiors. Confucianism • Xiao: “filial piety,” patriarchal significance of male family elders; structuring of social relations on hierarchy between father-son: • Father-Son • Ruler-Subject • Teacher-Student • Elder Brother-Younger Brother • Friend-Friend; for Women: • Father-Daughter • Mother-Daughter • Brother-Sister Confucius’ Followers • Mencius (372-289 BCE): Disciple of Confucius who emphasized the quality of ren (“benevolence”); had optimistic view of human nature. • Xunzi (298-238 BCE): Disciple of Confucius who emphasized the quality of li (“sense of propriety”); had negative view of human nature. Daoism • Laozi (Sixth Century BCE): Critic of Confucianism. • Optimistic view of human nature. • Emphasized life of reflection, introspection. • Wuwei: Follow the (passive) simplicity of nature; the Dao (“the Way”). • Retreat from political and economic involvement (trade); people should live in small, self-sufficient agricultural communities. Legalism • Focus on the role of the state. • Strong military and large number of cultivators. • Harsh penalties for light offenses. • Shang Yang (390-338 BCE): Chief minister to the Duke of Qin in western China. • Han Feizi (280-233 BCE): Confucian scholar who synthesized Legalist doctrine. Served as advisor to the Qin court. Qin Dynasty (221-207 BCE) • Short-lived dynasty, but responsible for unity, centralized rule in China. • Qin Shihuangdi (221-210 BCE); only ruler of the dynasty. • Ignored nobility and ruled with centralized bureaucracy; capital at Xianyang. • Divided realm into administrative provinces and districts; officials appointed by court. Qin Dynasty • Built roads to aid movement of armies and facilitate trade. • Linked defensive walls in north and west against nomadic incursions; precursor to “Great Wall of China.” • Standardized laws, currency, weights and measures, and China’s written script. • Qin Shihuangdi’s tomb: containing 15,000 terracotta soldiers, modelled after officers in his own army. • In 207 BCE, waves of rebellion eventually ending dynasty; emperor alienated nobility, scholar-bureaucrats, and peasants. Han Dynasty • Divided into Former Han (206 BCE-9 CE) and Later Han (25-220 CE); interrupted by reign of Wang Mang (9-23 CE). • Dynasty founded by military commander, Liu Bang; established capital at Chang’an (Later Han capital at Luoyang). • Liu Bang gave large landholdings to members of aristocracy, members of imperial family, to win support. • Realm divided into districts, governed by officials picked by the emperor. Han Dynasty (Former) • After 200 BCE, strict policy of centralized rule followed after kinsmen failed to come to Liu Bang’s aid against Xiongnu raiders from the north. • Han Wudi (141-87 BCE): the “martial emperor”-counterbalanced imperial tensions through administrative centralization and imperial expansion. • During his reign, pioneered educational system to provide for steady recruitment of literate, bureaucratic officials. • In 124 BCE, he established an imperial university with Confucianism as basis. Han Dynasty (Former) • Imperial extension of power under Han Wudi into northern Vietnam and Korea, also brought Xiongnu under military control. • Extension of familial ethics throughout society as form of social discipline and economic development. • Development of iron technology for improved arms and agricultural tools. • Greater agricultural yields and population growth. • Development of better silk (mulberry leaves). Fall of Former Han • Social tensions; widening gap between rich and poor. • Estates of wealthy increasing as indebted peasants gave up land and sometimes sold themselves, or family members, into slavery to pay off debts. • Reign of Wang Mang (9-23 CE): regent for 2 yr. old emperor, usurped the throne. • Attempted to break up large estates and re-distribute land, but alienated both ruling elites and peasantry. Later Han Dynasty (25-220 CE) • Established new capital at Luoyang. • Continued administrative policies of Former Han. • Did not re-distribute land; social-economic tensions continued (ex. Yellow Turban Rebellion). • Factions began to appear among imperial family members, scholar-bureaucrats, and court eunuchs. • In the early third century CE (220), central government dissolved and for almost four centuries, China divided into many large regional kingdoms.


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