PSYC 160, Week 6 Notes
PSYC 160, Week 6 Notes PSYC 160
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
No class due to inclement weather. 02/15/16 Chapter Two Continued Section 2.2 The Interaction of Heredity and Environment 02/17/16 1. Schizophrenia Facts a. Likely caused by genes; runs in the family b. Can be brought on by trauma (ex. war, abuse) c. Brought on by cat born protozoa, toxoplasma gondii i. This is also why they tell pregnant women not to clean litter boxes d. Treatable, but not curable e. Shows up in males around age 19 and age 22 in females. Could also show up in late 20s f. Excessive use of drugs can trigger it g. Various levels of schizophrenia i. Schizoaffective disorder ii. Can get worse as time goes on iii. Drugs = functioning, but can create ticks and paranoia 2. Gene-Environment Influence a. Gene-environment correlation i. Gene is there but doesn’t show up until environment triggers it (ex. depression) ii. 3 types: 1. Passive gene-environment – parents pass it on a. Social parents = social kids 2. Evocative gene-environment – a child’s genotype may illicit certain responses from others a. Cranky kids push others away 3. Active gene-environment – a child’s genotype will play a role in determining their environment a. Musically inclined child hangs around other musicians Section 2.3 3. The Stages of the Prenatal Period a. Germinal Stage: fertilization to 2 weeks i. 58% of all developing organisms fail to implant and don’t survive ii. Cells develop rapidly and become increasingly specialized b. Embryonic Stage: 2 to 8 weeks i. Rapid cell differentiation ii. Organs begin to appear, but not form iii. In the 3 – 9 week the use of teratogens can cause a miscarriage 1. Teratogens – a drug that produces birth defects iv. 20% of miscarriages occur during this critical period c. Fetal Stage: 8 weeks to birth i. Hormones are released, which determine the sex of the fetus 1. High levels of androgen = male 2. High levels of estrogen = female ii. 5% of miscarriages occur during this period 4. Infertility a. In males… i. Low number of sperm ii. Sperm has low motility b. In females… i. Abnormal ovulation ii. Blocked fallopian tubes iii. 1/3 of females are infertile 5. Options a. Fertility drugs b. In vitro fertilization (IVF) – egg is fertilized outside of body and implanted in the vagina c. Artificial insemination – placing sperm directly in vagina i. Increased odds of multiple births. 1 in every 10 artificial inseminations result in multiple births ii. Incredibly expensive iii. First couple of attempts don’t usually work 6. Twin Facts a. 1 out of 250 Caucasian childbirths results in twins b. 1 out of 86 Caucasian childbirths result in fraternal twins c. 1 out of 70 African American childbirths result in fraternal twins d. If you, your mom, or grandmother had a fraternal twin, that increases your chance of having twins e. 17% of 45 year old moms will give birth to twins f. Who is more likely to have identical genetics, identical or fraternal twins? i. Neither g. What are the odds of fraternal twins having two dads? i. 1 in 12 h. What are the chances of having identical triplets? i. 1 out of 200 million
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