PSYC 1001: Week 6
PSYC 1001: Week 6 PSYC 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Seal on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Ramezan Dowlati in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
PSYC 1001 Dr. Ramezan Dowlati Class Notes for February 16-18 Vision (February 16) The world has no color; all colors are perceived as different frequencies of light are received by the retina Other animals may receive the same frequency of light but perceive it as a different color How do we perceive color? o Trichromatic theory: 3 optic primary colors = red, blue, and green Cones perceive reflections of these 3 colors and mix them to create other colors All colors reflected = white All colors absorbed = black; absence of light and color Reading black text on white paper: you read what you cannot see; you perceive the contrast and read black text using the background o Color-blindness means that at least 1 type of cone (red, blue, or green) is missing; even though 1 cone is missing, 2 colors are not perceived… o Opponent-process theory: cones process both a color and their opponent Red-green, yellow-blue, black-white If you saturate your vision with one color then shift to a white background, you perceive the opposite colors If someone is missing cones that perceive green, they also cannot see red Hearing 2 major differences between signals of light and sound: o Light travels at high speed through a vacuum and does not need a medium while sound requires a medium through which to travel and therefore travels more slowly o Light travels only in a straight line but sound travels in 3 dimensions; we can hear something from behind us but cannot see it Because sound travels slowly, we can tell which direction sound is coming from depending on which ear receives it first o The only time we cannot tell is when someone is directly in front or behind us so that the sound reaches both ears at exactly the same time We can hear 20-20,000 Hertz (vibrations per second) There is no limitation of loudness for our hearing but for health and safety we should listen to sounds no louder than 80 decibels Loudness is detected by vibration against the eardrum Cochlea detects frequency o Hair cells inside cochlea vibrate in response to frequencies o Frequency theory: the frequency of the vibration of the hair cells matches the frequency of the perceived sound o Place theory: different frequencies most impact or bend the hair cells of different places within the cochlea, which is how we detect them o “Fine-tuned” hearing: much more precise than vision o Able to guess age, mood, sickness of someone on the phone because of the frequency of their voice even at the same loudness o Damage to the cochlea was not reparable until cochlear implants about 20 years ago Outer ear: vibration of air Middle ear: vibration of solid bones Inner ear: vibration of liquid within the cochlea Gestalt Principles Gestalt = the whole is more than the sum of its parts (ex. 100 puzzle pieces when organized become a picture) You see things as a whole picture, not separate parts Gestalt therapy: taking the big picture behind psychological disorders, not just dealing with one thing such as depression or OCD by itself We impose order and organize things when we perceive them; make meaning out of sensory data Principles of organization: o Figure-ground o Grouping Proximity, continuity, and closure o Depth perception All images on the retina are 2-D but we see in 3-D Retinal disparity: 2 retinas receive slightly different images, and the brain interprets the images as an object that has sides/depth Uses both binocular cues and monocular cues to see the world in 3-D Monocular cues include interposition (what is behind something else), relative height/size, motion of objects that do not change size (size constancy) o Shape constancy: we sense a different shape but we perceive the same object o Color constancy: colors change based on context Basic concept: Perception imposes meaning to our sensation Visual Dominance: we perceive sound as coming from where we see it, though it may be coming from somewhere else (at the movies, sound comes from speakers but we hear it coming from the screen) Touch: mix of 4 skin receptors (pressure, pain, warmth, cold) Taste: also involves several basic sensations 80% of tastebuds are on the tongue Internal Senses: kinesthetic and vestibular senses Sense of motion, balance, body position, even when eyes are closed Parapsychology: study of the “6 sense” or perception without sensation Not enough data or objective evidence to scientifically study this Sensory Interaction: some of our sense cooperate so that we perceive our world easier and better Sense of smell helps us taste better Flavor comes from taste, smell, and texture Seeing someone speaking makes the world easier to understand than just hearing them Learning (February 18) A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience Studied by behaviorists exclusively until the 1960s Classical Conditioning: o Natural (unconditioned) stimulus cases a natural (unconditioned) response, such as jerking away from pain o If you introduce a neutral stimulus before a natural stimulus, the reflex will be conditioned for the neutral stimulus o Pavlov discovered this in experiments with dogs o Police officers by themselves are a neutral stimulus but their association with getting a ticket causes a conditioned response of anxiety or fear or seeing the police, even without knowing whether or not you will get a ticket o Response to a neutral stimulus = conditioned response o The response itself does not change when it goes from unconditioned to conditioned; it is just response to a different stimulus that causes anticipation o Has nothing to do with brain/mind/realization; automatic learning o The conditioned response will go to extinction if the response is not rewarded or the unconditioned stimulus does not occur (“unlearning”) Spontaneous recovery: reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response May require multiple extinctions to completely “unlearn” a conditioned response o Something things can be learned after only 1 exposure: important for survival Example: tasting potential poison only requires 1 exposure to dislike that food forever o Generalization: the tendency to have a conditioned response to similar stimuli as the original (conditioned response to metronome occurs in response to all clocks) o Discrimination: part of advanced conditioning; having a conditioned response to specific stimuli, not all similar ones Operant Conditioning: o Thorndike’s Law of Effect: behavior is learned and repeated if it is followed by a pleasant effect; it decreases in frequency if it is follow up an unpleasant effect (based on reward or reinforcement and punishment) Circus animals are mostly trained this way o Reinforcements ALWAYS have a positive effect: behavior increases as a result of both negative AND positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement does NOT equal punishment
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