PSYC 115, Week 6 of NOtes
PSYC 115, Week 6 of NOtes PSyc 115
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ny Pham on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSyc 115 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Ms. Mary Stegall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Honors: General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Coping and Dealing with Stress Problem Focused Coping – dealing directly with the stressor or situation (control) Emotion Focused Coping – controlling one’s emotional reaction to the situation; dealing with your reaction to the situation Defense Mechanisms – mental process used to avoid stress/anxiety; self- protection 1. Denial – refusal to accept reality: “I don’t have a problem…” ex: alcoholics 2. Repression – unconscious forgetting of negative thoughts and impulses Ex: loss of childhood pet; childhood accident 3. Reaction Formation – expressing the opposite of what one feels Ex: smothering love to cover for hatred 4. Regression – returning to earlier behavior Ex; vacation = adult play (an adult form of recess) Ex; temper tantrum ex: crying 5. Projection – transferring unacceptable impulses to other Ex: think neighbor finds you attractive instead of you admitting that you find him attractive 6. Rationalization – finding an excuse Ex; teacher failed me because he/she doesn’t like me Ex: I really NEED a Lexus 7. Compensation – overcoming a weakness by excelling other areas; a. Ex. napoleon was short so he conquered Europe b. Ex. bad athlete will be a better musician 8. Sublimation – frustrated desires are transferred to socially acceptable activities Ex: sexual energy into art work; aggression channeled to football and boxing Managing Stress 1. Managing the Body Exercise Meditation Progressive Relaxation—alternately stress different muscle groups Guided Imagery—visualization, but not personal; when something outside of your head guides you 2. Changing Behavior Slow Down—don’t try to do 27 things at once Organize Get Balanced Accept Your Limits Seek Social Support Write About Your Feelings 3. Modifying Thoughts Coping Statements – positive, not negative self statements; “I’m going to do my best” instead of “This test is going to destroy me” Lighten Up – get a sense of humor; laugh Coping with Frustration and Conflict o Learned Helplessness – Martin Seligman coined the term. A dog is conditioned to give up and not even try to escape the shock. Possible tie to depression in humans. 2/22/16 Personality Notes Definition of Personality – a person’s unique and relatively stable patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior PsychodynamicFreud, Adler, Jung, Horney, Erikson HumanisticMaslow, Rogers Type/TraitSheldon, Allport, Catell, Eyserck/Eysaek Social cognitiveBandura The Psychoanalytic (Psychodynamic) Perspective – Sigmund Freud o Key Ideas All behavior is motivated, much of it through sexual urges. Most causes of behavior are unknown to the behaver (unconscious). Early childhood is crucial in personality development/formation Suggests your personality is developed by the age of 5 Dreams, slips of tongue (Freudian slips), and childhood subjects reveal true motives. Utilized hypnosis, free association (spontaneous speaking), and dream analysis to discover the trauma at the root of the problem. All behavior is powered by two fundamental drives. Eros is the “life instinct” or creative drive for survival (eating, drinking, warmth, sex). Libido is the life energy for the creative drive. Thanatos is the ”death instinct” or destructive drive (overdrinking, smoking, overeating, driving too fast). o Levels of Consciousness Conscious – perceptions, thoughts, and feelings in one’s current awareness Preconscious material easily brought to awareness Unconscious – thoughts, wishes, and feelings of which one is unaware *many thoughts are repressed (deliberate forgetting). o Structure of Personality Id – primitive unconscious part of personality; drive; immediate gratification of needs (pleasure principle); about your impulses, very selfish Ego – works to control the id’s impulses so that they might be satisfied in a realistic manner (reality principle); the manager Superego – social conscience; the moral sense of right/wrong (morality principle). *too much id = neurotic anxiety; too much superego, moral anxiety. o Personality Development (Psychosexual Stages) Adult personality characteristics are determined by two factors: what happens during each psychosexual stage and how successful one moves through each stage. Stages are defined in terms of parts of the body; the libido or sexual energy seeks an outlet through the body part. *Fixation – remaining at a particular stage and not progressing. *Regression – returning to an earlier stage. 1) Oral Stage (0 – 1)– pleasure around mouth; passive period of contentment; eating, biting, sucking. Oral Aggressive – frustration and anxiety = aggression, “biting” humor; Freud would say the person didn’t get the bottle enough Oral Dependent – overindulged = dependent, conforming, trusting, happy; Freud would say that the person got too much of the bottle/nurturing 2) Anal stage (1 – 3) focus on anus; toilet training; authority vs. independence Anal Expulsive – rebels by being dirty and not doing what is wanted = stubborn, defiant, rebellious Anal Retentive – rejects feces with disgust = orderly, creative, neat, stingy 3) Phallic (3 – 6) – genital area *Oedipus/Electra Complex – sexual attraction to opposite sex parent and hostility to same sex parent. Freud views it as the most significant event in personality and sexual development. 4) Latency Stage (6 – 11) – no interest in sexual matters (repression); same sex peers as child enters school.; other interests now 5) Genital Stage (adolescence, 1218) – genitals are again the focus; brief return of Oedipal problems (“crush”); sexual tension. Successful navigation results in the blending of lust/affection. The NeoFreudians—started liking what Frued was saying, but they weren’t sure about everything he was saying o Alfred Adler – individual psychology; he doesn’t believe that sexual motives are as important; overcoming weaknesses by become better Striving for Superiority – to be powerful and superior (perfect completion) Compensation – seeking to overcome one’s weakness Birth Order – oldest, middle, and youngest display different behaviors; experience growing up is different due to the order that youre born; oldest being dethrowned by the second child Neurotics, drunks, criminals, and perverts are generally first born Second born rebellious, envious, better adjusted than youngest Youngestspoiled, most likely to be the problem child and “neurotically adjusted” Also talks a bout earliest memory—it provides the clues to how youre going to live your life o Karen Horney *only female in this topic. Accepts the unconscious, the motivation, etc, but rejects the theory of penis envy (women wanted to be men). Two basic emotions: Basic Anxiety – child feels violated and helpless in a hostile world (parents) Basic Hostility – child reacts to being rejected Womb Envy – all men want to have a baby (her response to penis envy) o Carl Jung – Freud’s “crown prince.” He sees the fetus as tracing the history of the species. The mind has a record of human experience, like the body, that reveals the structures of our ancestors. Collective Unconscious – the storehouse of human memories (ancient predispositions to respond to certain ideas because our ancestors went through such experiences) Archetypes – universal symbols (components of collective unconscious). Ex: energy archetype such as fire, flame, lightning, fireworks (desire to create and control power) Ex: Anima/Animus Ex: mandala – magic circle; representative of completion Personal Unconscious – storehouse for personal experiences Introversion – toward internal subjective world Extraversion – toward external, objective world. We have both of these orientations, but one dominates. Persona – role assigned to one by society; mask that conveys one impression to others, often conceals real nature of person o Erik Erikson – psychosocial theory of development; 8 stages of development from birth to death (our personality is formed by social influences); interested in play situations. Interested in play in child psychology Play therapy in child and adult treatments Psychohistory – study of individuals using psychoanalysis and history; generally famous people; looking at how they grew up and how it affected their development Ex: Luther, Ghandhi The Humanistic Perspective on Personality o Terms Humanism – school of thought that emphasizes the positive and creative nature of humans; they believe that people are driven to achieve their true potential with free will. “Third Force.” o Carl Rogers SelfConcept – perceptions and beliefs about oneself Positive Self Regard – selfesteem or a person feeling good about himself or herself Unconditional Positive Regard – loving acceptance from others regardless of one’s behavior Ideal Self – idealized image of oneself (your perfect self) Congruence/Incongruence (consistency/inconsistency need to have consistency between your actual self and idealized self. Incongruence can lead to confusion, dissatisfaction, vulnerability and maladjustment. It is not being true to oneself. o Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs—you need a place to live and eat before you can self actualize SelfActualization – process of striving for completion and creativity and potential.; at top of hierarchy of needs; he says very few people would be selfactualized (2%) o Peak Experiences – characteristic of the self –actualized; you feel one with everything, youre connected with nature The Social Cognitive Perspective – Albert Bandura o Personality develops through observational learning, conscious thinking, social experiences, self efficacy (belief that one can be successful; confidence), and reciprocal determinism. “We are both the products and architects of our environments.” o Reciprocal Determinism – the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors in causing behavior o Looking at all the social experiences we’ve had Type Theory – William Sheldon’s Somatotype Theory (not in textbook)—body type theory; your body type determines your personality; the numbers are measures of how much of the type you are 1) Endomorph (711) – round, soft appearance > sociability, love of physical comfort, extraversion Ex: Santa (large, but everyone loves him) 2) Mesomorph (171) – muscular, rectangular body > adventuresome, risk taker, loves outdoors and physical exercise, aggressive Ex. Arnold Schwartznager 3) Ectomorph (117) – thin, frail, delicate appearance > love of privacy, intellectual intensity, introvert Ex: Bill Gates The Trait Perspective on Personality o Trait – a relatively stable, enduring predisposition to act in a certain way; characteristics that we have o Gordon Allport – called traits = building blocks; says 171 traits; three types of personality traits/building blocks Cardinal – one trait on which one’s life is centered Central – two to three important traits Secondary – several additional characteristics, such as tastes, preferences Ex. Mother Theresa cardinal: compassion; central: giving, loving; secondary: maybe she liked rap and sushi Ex. Donald Trumpcardinal: greedy; central: power, blunt; secondary: his choice in women o Raymond Cattell Surface vs. Source Traits Says the source traits are the most important 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) *The Major Personality Perspectives Table 11.5 Personality Assessment o Terms Reliability – consistency over test administrations Validity – does it measure what it is supposed to measure? o Projective Tests – an attempt to uncover unconscious thoughts and desires. The basis is to provide neutral or ambiguous stimuli and let the person describe it so as to get insights into personality. There is no right or wrong answer, but one can obtain much information. Rorschach – developed in the 1920’s by Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach. Ten standardized ink blots; not all are black. What is important is what parts or sections of the inkblot are focused on.; what do you see in the ink plots? TAT (Thematic Apperception Test; developed by Harvard psychologist Henry Murray. 20 sketches of different scenes; subject is asked to make up a story about the picture. Scoring based on elaboration (feelings, interactions of characters, preliminary events to get there, and story ending).; telling a story about the neutral picture; projecting different throughts House, Tree, Person Test—draw a house, tree, and person separately; based on these drawings, therapist will analyze; ex. holes in the tree represent depression o SelfReport Inventories MMPI2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) – assesses personality characteristics and psychological disorders. CPI (California Psychological Inventory) – assesses personality characteristics 16 PF – Cattell’s inventory; produces a personality profile
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