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PSYC 115, Week 6 of NOtes

by: Ny Pham

PSYC 115, Week 6 of NOtes PSyc 115

Ny Pham
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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About this Document

These notes are a continuation of stress, as well as all the notes on personality theories.
Honors: General Psychology
Ms. Mary Stegall
Class Notes
Psychology, ull psychology, ul psychology, honors psychology, General Psychology, psyc115
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ny Pham on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSyc 115 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Ms. Mary Stegall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Honors: General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 02/19/16
Coping and Dealing with Stress  Problem Focused Coping – dealing directly with the stressor or situation (control)  Emotion Focused Coping – controlling one’s emotional reaction to the situation; dealing with your reaction to the situation  Defense Mechanisms – mental process used to avoid stress/anxiety; self- protection 1. Denial – refusal to accept reality: “I don’t have a problem…” ex: alcoholics 2. Repression – unconscious forgetting of negative thoughts and impulses Ex: loss of childhood pet; childhood accident 3. Reaction Formation – expressing the opposite of what one feels Ex: smothering love to cover for hatred 4. Regression – returning to earlier behavior Ex; vacation = adult play (an adult form of recess) Ex; temper tantrum ex: crying 5. Projection – transferring unacceptable impulses to other Ex: think neighbor finds you attractive instead of you admitting that you find him attractive 6. Rationalization – finding an excuse Ex; teacher failed me because he/she doesn’t like me Ex: I really NEED a Lexus 7. Compensation – overcoming a weakness by excelling other areas; a. Ex. napoleon was short so he conquered Europe b. Ex. bad athlete will be a better musician 8. Sublimation – frustrated desires are transferred to socially acceptable activities Ex: sexual energy into art work; aggression channeled to football and boxing  Managing Stress 1. Managing the Body Exercise Meditation Progressive Relaxation—alternately stress different muscle groups Guided Imagery—visualization, but not personal; when something outside of your head guides you 2. Changing Behavior Slow Down—don’t try to do 27 things at once Organize Get Balanced Accept Your Limits Seek Social Support Write About Your Feelings 3. Modifying Thoughts Coping Statements – positive, not negative self statements; “I’m going to do my best” instead of “This test is going to destroy me” Lighten Up – get a sense of humor; laugh  Coping with Frustration and Conflict o Learned Helplessness – Martin Seligman coined the term. A dog is conditioned to give up and not even try to escape the shock. Possible tie to depression in humans. 2/22/16 Personality Notes Definition of Personality – a person’s unique and relatively stable patterns of thoughts, feelings,  and behavior PsychodynamicFreud, Adler, Jung, Horney, Erikson HumanisticMaslow, Rogers Type/TraitSheldon, Allport, Catell, Eyserck/Eysaek Social cognitiveBandura  The Psychoanalytic (Psychodynamic) Perspective – Sigmund Freud o Key Ideas  All behavior is motivated, much of it through sexual urges.  Most causes of behavior are unknown to the behaver (unconscious).  Early childhood is crucial in personality development/formation  Suggests your personality is developed by the age of 5  Dreams, slips of tongue (Freudian slips), and childhood subjects reveal true  motives.  Utilized hypnosis, free association (spontaneous speaking), and dream analysis  to discover the trauma at the root of the problem.  All behavior is powered by two fundamental drives.    Eros is the “life instinct” or creative drive for survival (eating, drinking,  warmth, sex).  Libido is the life energy for the creative drive.    Thanatos is the ”death instinct” or destructive drive (overdrinking,  smoking, overeating, driving too fast). o Levels of Consciousness  Conscious – perceptions, thoughts, and feelings in one’s current awareness  Preconscious ­ material easily brought to awareness  Unconscious – thoughts, wishes, and feelings of which one is unaware   *many thoughts are repressed (deliberate forgetting).  o Structure of Personality   Id – primitive unconscious part of personality; drive; immediate gratification of  needs (pleasure principle); about your impulses, very selfish  Ego – works to control the id’s impulses so that they might be satisfied in a  realistic manner (reality principle); the manager  Superego – social conscience; the moral sense of right/wrong (morality  principle).  *too much id = neurotic anxiety; too much superego, moral anxiety.  o Personality Development (Psychosexual Stages)  Adult personality characteristics are determined by two factors:  what happens  during each psychosexual stage and how successful one moves through each  stage.  Stages are defined in terms of parts of the body; the libido or sexual  energy seeks an outlet through the body part.  *Fixation – remaining at a particular stage and not progressing.  *Regression – returning to an earlier stage.  1) Oral Stage (0 – 1)– pleasure around mouth; passive period of contentment;  eating, biting, sucking.  Oral Aggressive – frustration and anxiety = aggression, “biting” humor;  Freud would say the person didn’t get the bottle enough  Oral Dependent – overindulged = dependent, conforming, trusting,  happy; Freud would say that the person got too much of the  bottle/nurturing  2) Anal stage (1 – 3) focus on anus; toilet training; authority vs. independence  Anal Expulsive – rebels by being dirty and not doing what is wanted =  stubborn, defiant, rebellious  Anal Retentive – rejects feces with disgust = orderly, creative, neat,  stingy  3) Phallic (3 – 6) – genital area  *Oedipus/Electra Complex – sexual attraction to opposite sex parent and  hostility to same sex parent.  Freud views it as the most significant event  in personality and sexual development.  4) Latency Stage (6 – 11) – no interest in sexual matters (repression); same sex  peers as child enters school.; other interests now  5) Genital Stage (adolescence, 12­18) – genitals are again the focus; brief return  of Oedipal problems (“crush”); sexual tension.  Successful navigation results in  the blending of lust/affection.  The Neo­Freudians—started liking what Frued was saying, but they weren’t sure about  everything he was saying o Alfred Adler – individual psychology; he doesn’t believe that sexual motives are as  important; overcoming weaknesses by become better  Striving for Superiority – to be powerful and superior (perfect completion)  Compensation – seeking to overcome one’s weakness  Birth Order – oldest, middle, and youngest display different behaviors;  experience growing up is different due to the order that youre born; oldest being  dethrowned by the second child  Neurotics, drunks, criminals, and perverts are generally first born  Second born rebellious, envious, better adjusted than youngest  Youngestspoiled, most likely to be the problem child and “neurotically  adjusted”  Also talks a bout earliest memory—it provides the clues to how youre going to  live your life o Karen Horney ­ *only female in this topic. Accepts the unconscious, the motivation, etc,  but rejects the theory of penis envy (women wanted to be men). Two basic emotions:  Basic Anxiety – child feels violated and helpless in a hostile world (parents)  Basic Hostility – child reacts to being rejected  Womb Envy – all men want to have a baby (her response to penis envy) o Carl Jung – Freud’s “crown prince.”  He sees the fetus as tracing the history of the  species.  The mind has a record of human experience, like the body, that reveals the  structures of our ancestors.  Collective Unconscious – the storehouse of human memories (ancient  predispositions to respond to certain ideas because our ancestors went through  such experiences)  Archetypes – universal symbols (components of collective unconscious).  Ex:   energy archetype such as fire, flame, lightning, fireworks (desire to create and  control power)     Ex: Anima/Animus    Ex:  mandala – magic circle;  representative of completion  Personal Unconscious – storehouse for personal experiences  Introversion – toward internal subjective world   Extraversion – toward external, objective world.  We have both of these  orientations, but one dominates.  Persona – role assigned to one by society; mask that conveys one impression to  others, often conceals real nature of person o Erik Erikson – psychosocial theory of development; 8 stages of development from birth  to death (our personality is formed by social influences); interested in play situations.  Interested in play in child psychology  Play therapy in child and adult treatments  Psychohistory – study of individuals using psychoanalysis and history; generally  famous people; looking at how they grew up and how it affected their  development  Ex: Luther, Ghandhi  The Humanistic Perspective on Personality o Terms  Humanism – school of thought that emphasizes the positive and creative nature  of humans; they believe that people are driven to achieve their true potential with free will.  “Third Force.” o Carl Rogers  Self­Concept – perceptions and beliefs about oneself  Positive Self Regard – self­esteem or a person feeling good about himself or  herself  Unconditional Positive Regard – loving acceptance from others regardless of  one’s behavior  Ideal Self – idealized image of oneself (your perfect self)  Congruence/Incongruence (consistency/inconsistency ­   need to have  consistency between your actual self and idealized self.   Incongruence can lead  to confusion, dissatisfaction, vulnerability and maladjustment.  It is not being true to oneself.  o Abraham Maslow   Hierarchy of Needs—you need a place to live and eat before you can self­ actualize  Self­Actualization – process of striving for completion and creativity and potential.; at top of hierarchy of needs; he says very few people would be self­actualized (2%) o Peak Experiences – characteristic of the self –actualized; you  feel one with everything, youre connected with nature  The Social Cognitive Perspective – Albert Bandura o Personality develops through observational learning, conscious thinking, social  experiences, self­ efficacy (belief that one can be successful; confidence), and reciprocal  determinism.  “We are both the products and architects of our environments.” o Reciprocal Determinism – the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental  factors in causing behavior o Looking at all the social experiences we’ve had  Type Theory – William Sheldon’s Somatotype Theory (not in textbook)—body type theory; your  body type determines your personality; the numbers are measures of how much of the type you  are 1) Endomorph (7­1­1) – round, soft appearance ­­> sociability, love of physical comfort,  extraversion   Ex:  Santa (large, but everyone loves him) 2) Mesomorph (1­7­1) – muscular, rectangular body ­­> adventuresome, risk taker, loves  outdoors and physical exercise, aggressive    Ex. Arnold Schwartznager 3) Ectomorph (1­1­7) – thin, frail, delicate appearance ­­>  love of privacy, intellectual  intensity, introvert   Ex:  Bill Gates  The Trait Perspective on Personality o Trait – a relatively stable, enduring predisposition to act in a certain way; characteristics  that we have o Gordon Allport – called traits = building blocks; says 171 traits; three types of  personality traits/building blocks  Cardinal – one trait on which one’s life is centered  Central – two to three important traits  Secondary – several additional characteristics, such as tastes, preferences  Ex. Mother Theresa cardinal: compassion; central: giving, loving; secondary:  maybe she liked rap and sushi  Ex. Donald Trumpcardinal: greedy; central: power, blunt; secondary: his choice in women o Raymond Cattell  Surface vs. Source Traits  Says the source traits are the most important  16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) *The Major Personality Perspectives   Table 11.5  Personality Assessment o Terms  Reliability – consistency over test administrations  Validity – does it measure what it is supposed to measure? o Projective Tests – an attempt to uncover unconscious thoughts and desires.  The basis is  to provide neutral or ambiguous stimuli and let the person describe it so as to get insights  into personality.  There is no right or wrong answer, but one can obtain much  information.  Rorschach – developed in the 1920’s by Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach. Ten standardized ink blots; not all are black.  What is important is what parts or  sections of the inkblot are focused on.; what do you see in the ink plots?   TAT (Thematic Apperception Test; developed by Harvard psychologist Henry  Murray.  20 sketches of different scenes; subject is asked to make up a story  about the picture.  Scoring based on elaboration (feelings, interactions of  characters, preliminary events to get there, and story ending).; telling a story  about the neutral picture; projecting different throughts  House, Tree, Person Test—draw a house, tree, and person separately; based on  these drawings, therapist will analyze;   ex. holes in the tree represent depression o Self­Report Inventories  MMPI­2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) – assesses personality  characteristics and psychological disorders.  CPI (California Psychological Inventory) – assesses personality characteristics  16 PF – Cattell’s inventory; produces a personality profile


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