LING 1010 Lectures 7 and 8 Notes
LING 1010 Lectures 7 and 8 Notes LING 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Skinger on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1010 at University of Connecticut taught by Hendrikus Van Der Hulst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Languages and Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Lecture 7: Words, Lexicon, and a bit of Syntax Morphemes The lexicon contains morphemes, which must be learned. It has free morphemes, bound morphemes, and roots. Roots A type of morpheme that can’t occur by itself, but it can have different things attached to it. Ex: anarchist Different languages have other patterns for creating words. Ex: In Indonesian anak = boy and anakanak = boys. This is called reduplication. Infixation A rule allowing you to put affixes in the middle of words. Ex: Fucking fantastic → fanfuckingtastic Lexicon Contains every unit that has meaning. Does not contain properties that can be deduced from general rules. Ex: It has leave but not leaves, because we have a rule that says to make something plural, you add an ‘s’ to the end of the word. Contains all morphemes Contains complex words that don’t follow the general rules. Exceptions to rules must be memorized and are stored in our lexicon. o Ex: Deep + th → depth , wide + th → width Idioms (common phrases) are stored in the lexicon o Ex: ‘kick the bucket’ = to die Lecture 8: How to Form a Sentence Structure of Phrases Phrases consist of one or more words Phrases can be inside phrases (recursion) Phrases can be put into sentences, and act like “semantic units” with a certain function. Phrases have hierarchical structure. Phrases have labels Very little boys dig deep holes in the yard [very little boys] Noun Phrase (np), acts like a subject [very little] Adjective Phrase (ap), modifies “boys” [dig [deep holes]] Verb Phrase (vp), predicate [holes] NP, acts like an object [in the yard] Prepositional Phrase (pp), acts as a modifier Refer to page 115 to see how these phrases were combined into a sentence. The “head” is the most important word in a phrase, and gives its label to the phrase Phrase Labels Come from Projection, just like in morphology The head (the most important word in the phrase) projects it’s category to the overall phrase Noun Phrase ╱╲ Adj Noun deep holes If the head is a verb it becomes a verb phrase, etc 1 Noun The superscript 1 indicates that it is a phrase, in this case a noun phrase. 2 Level Structure of Phrases These are certain constraints on the complexity of phrases. they can only be created in a particular way. The head must be included in the sentence. A head can be surrounded by one or two types of dependents: o Specifiers before the head X o Complements after the head ╱ | ╱ X This applies to the building of all phrases: ╱ | ╲ 0 Specifier X Compliment Compliments are occasionally obligatory, such as if “fond” is the head. Specifier depends on the head Order of the specifier, head, and compliment are different for different languages. Insertion Principal/ Requirement Words such as affixes have insertion frames Verbs: 2 2 o Transitive Verb: (ex: hit) [ N ] v o Intransitive Verb: (ex: sleep) [ ] v2 Prepositions o in [ N ] p o in [ ] p Some adjectives o ex: fond [ P ] A2 Syntactic Constraints Universal, General Constraints o Projection Requirement o Insertion Requirement Specific Constraints for English o Specifier → Head ← Complement Recursion Phrase structure is recursive because a compliment can be a phrase, and a phrase can contain a phrase that is the same TYPE that it is. o (The cup (on the book (under the table (in the attic (of the old house))))) Repair Basic phrase structures need to be repaired: o Inflection words need to be adapted to fit the environment they are in. Adjusts a word so that it fits the context it is in. (deals with affixes) Attached different morphemes to better fit the context (Ex: adding an ‘s’ to the end of a word). o Transformation Sometimes, phrases have to be moved. Like syntax and phonology, phrases are built from constraints and repairs