New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

LING 1010 Lectures 7 and 8 Notes

by: Sarah Skinger

LING 1010 Lectures 7 and 8 Notes LING 1010

Sarah Skinger
GPA 3.915

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in Lecture 7: Words, Lexicon, and a bit of Syntax, and Lecture 8: How to Form a Sentence. Only the first part of Lecture 7 was covered in class.
Introduction to Languages and Linguistics
Hendrikus Van Der Hulst
Class Notes
LING 1010, Linguistics, lecture 7, lecture 8
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Languages and Linguistics

Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Skinger on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1010 at University of Connecticut taught by Hendrikus Van Der Hulst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Languages and Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Connecticut.

Similar to LING 1010 at UCONN

Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology


Reviews for LING 1010 Lectures 7 and 8 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/19/16
Lecture 7: Words, Lexicon, and a bit of Syntax Morphemes  The lexicon contains morphemes, which must be learned. It has free morphemes, bound morphemes, and roots.  Roots ­ A type of morpheme that can’t occur by itself, but it can have different things  attached to it. Ex: anarch­ist  Different languages have other patterns for creating words. Ex: In Indonesian anak =  boy  and anakanak = boys.    This is called reduplication.  Infixation ­ A rule allowing you to put affixes in the middle of words. Ex: Fucking fantastic → fan­fucking­tastic Lexicon  Contains every unit that has meaning. Does not contain properties that can be deduced  from general rules. Ex: It has leave but not leaves, because we have a rule that says to  make something plural, you add an ‘s’ to the end of the word.  Contains all morphemes  Contains complex words that don’t follow the general rules. Exceptions to rules must be  memorized and are stored in our lexicon. o Ex: Deep + th → depth   ,   wide + th → width  Idioms (common phrases) are stored in the lexicon o Ex: ‘kick the bucket’ = to die Lecture 8: How to Form a Sentence Structure of Phrases  Phrases consist of one or more words  Phrases can be inside phrases (recursion)  Phrases can be put into sentences, and act like “semantic units” with a certain function.  Phrases have hierarchical structure.  Phrases have labels Very little boys dig deep holes in the yard  [very little boys] ­ Noun Phrase (np), acts like a subject  [very little] ­ Adjective Phrase (ap), modifies “boys”  [dig [deep holes]] ­ Verb Phrase (vp), predicate  [holes] ­ NP, acts like an object  [in the yard]  ­ Prepositional Phrase (pp), acts as a modifier  Refer to page 115 to see how these phrases were combined into a sentence.  The “head” is the most important word in a phrase, and gives its label to the phrase Phrase Labels  Come from Projection, just like in morphology  The head (the most important word in the phrase) projects it’s category to the overall  phrase                                                   Noun Phrase                                                     ╱╲                                              Adj      Noun                                            deep     holes  If the head is a verb it becomes a verb phrase, etc 1  Noun  ­ The superscript 1 indicates that it is a phrase, in this case a noun phrase. 2 Level Structure of Phrases  These are certain constraints on the complexity of phrases. they can only be created in a particular way.   The head must be included in the sentence.  A head can be surrounded by one or two types of dependents: o Specifiers ­ before the head                                          X o Complements ­ after the head                                   ╱  |                                                                                          ╱      X  This applies to the building of all phrases:                ╱             |   ╲ 0                                                                             Specifier       X    Compliment  Compliments are occasionally obligatory, such as if “fond” is the head.  Specifier depends on the head  Order of the specifier, head, and compliment are different for different languages. Insertion Principal/ Requirement  Words such as affixes have insertion frames  Verbs: 2 2 o Transitive Verb: (ex: hit) [ ­ N ] v o Intransitive Verb: (ex: sleep) [ ­ ] v2  Prepositions o in [ ­ N ] p o in [ ­ ] p  Some adjectives o ex: fond [ ­ P ] A2 Syntactic Constraints  Universal, General Constraints o Projection Requirement o Insertion Requirement  Specific Constraints for English o Specifier → Head  ← Complement Recursion  Phrase structure is recursive because a compliment can be a phrase, and a phrase can  contain a phrase that is the same TYPE that it is. o (The cup (on the book (under the table (in the attic (of the old house))))) Repair  Basic phrase structures need to be repaired: o Inflection ­ words need to be adapted to fit the environment they are in. Adjusts a  word so that it fits the context it is in. (deals with affixes) Attached different  morphemes to better fit the context (Ex: adding an ‘s’ to the end of a word). o Transformation ­ Sometimes, phrases have to be moved.  Like syntax and phonology, phrases are built from constraints and repairs                                                  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.