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by: Shanna Beyer

Psychology PSYC 1030

Shanna Beyer
University of Memphis
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Week four of notes
General Psychology
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1030 at University of Memphis taught by Freels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/19/16
Psychology Notes Week 4 Primary Reinforcers: reinforcers that aren’t learned (basic needs)
 Secondary Reinforcers: (learned) they often become reinforcers by being paired with primary reinforcers Token Reinforcers: specialized secondary reinforcers Social Reinforcers: embarrassment/humor Partial Reinforcers: doesn’t always present the reward - scheduling is important -FR: fixed ratio -VR: variable ratio -FI: fixed interval -VI: variable ratio Interval is based on time Chapter 8: Cognition, Learning, Creativity, Intelligence Cognition: psychological term for thinking. How we process information 2 types of processing: 1. experiential: passive and automatic, reflex 2. reflective: active and controlled, effort Images: picture-like representations Concepts: generalized ideas concerning related objects Language: words or symbols and rules for combining them that help with communication 3 types of concepts: 1. conjunctive: defined by at least 2 features 2. relational: defined by the relationship between the features of the object 3. disjunctive: have one of several possible features 4. prototype: idea model of a concept - social stereotypes: every example of a concept acts the same - all-or-nothing thinking 3 types of languages: 1. semantics: study of meanings in words and languages 2. denotative: dictionary meaning 3. connotative: feeling - language and thought are tightly linked Problem Solving: 1.Heuristic: any strategy or technique that helps solve a problem 2.Insight: reorganization of the problem hat helps you solve it Selective Encoding: use only what is necessary Selective Combination: bringing together seemingly unrelated information Selective Comparison: comparing new problems with previous information Fixation: tendency to repeat incorrect solutions Functional Fixation: inability of people to consider new uses of familiar things - Inductive vs. Deductive: inductive is going from specific to general, deductive is from general to specific - Logical vs. Illogical: logical is making conclusions based on explicit rules, illogical is intuitive, emotional, or personal - Divergent vs. Convergent: divergent develops many possibilities from one starting point, convergent is the opposite Fluency: the number of suggestions made Flexibility: the number of times you shift from a type of use to another Originality: how uncommon your ideas are 5 stages of creative thought: 1. orientation: defining the problem 2. preparation: gathering all information possible 3. incubation: no solutions but started the thinking process 4. illumination: sudden insight 5. verification: test insight to ensure it works Intuition: impulsive, instinctive thoughts Flaws: representativeness, underlying odds, framing, emotions Representativeness: an outcome is more likely than it really is Underlying Odds: ignore the underlying probability of events Framing: stating the problem in slightly different ways Emotions: think differently when emotional Intelligence: capacity to act purposefully or think rationally - How do we measure intelligence? IQ Tests: mental age -SB5 IQ= actual age X 100 -Wechsler SB5- based on the 5 area of intelligence: 1. fluid reasoning: problem solving knowledge: basic information 2. 3. quantitative reasoning: basic math, numbers 4. visuospatial processing: puzzles 5. working memory: short-term memory Wechsler- based on 4 factors 1. working memory: short-term memory 2. verbal comprehension: relationship between words 3. perceptual reasoning: puzzles 4. processing speed: time spent on the test - mentally gifted = IQ of 140 (less than .5%) - IQ and grades = .5 - intellectual disability generally begins to be diagnosed at IQ below 70 causes of intellectual disability: - genetic abnormalities - teratogens - birth injuries - postnatal problems Chapter 7: Memory Memory: mental system for retrieving information and past experiences Encoding: manipulating information into a form that can be remembered Storage: holding information Retrieval: recalling the information Short-term Memory: holds a small amount of specific information in awareness for about 12 seconds - working memory is more specific Long-term Memory: permanent storage of information - encoding differences = STM uses sound. LTM uses meaning - limit of 7 pieces (plus, minus 2) - chunking helps, can extend your limitations - Maintenance rehearsal - Rote Rehearsal - Elaborative Processing LTM: - easy to plant false information - minds like to fill in gaps - advertisements play into this - comes up too often in police work Memory Models: - current thought in everything is linked - speed depends on how tight the linkage is - Redintegration: flashbacks - elaborative processing is best bet to involve LTM


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