BIOL 111, Week no. 6
BIOL 111, Week no. 6 BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II
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BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Dr. Athena Anderson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Biology in Science at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
2/16/16 Joel Vanderbush → Animalia Chinchilla: Flat teeth in the back, used for nashing to eat foliage b/c herbivores. Very soft and dense hair. Raccoon: Flat teeth in the back, sharp teeth in the front indicates that they are omnivores. Arctic Fox Blue and gold macaw: Beak very good at cracking things. ● Questions from Mr. Vanderbushe’s presentation may be on the exam. Beaks & Diet Pets: Birds Beak shape and size correlate with diet. ● Blue & Gold Macaw, Ara ararauna ○ Beak is used for crunching and peeling nuts. ○ Most like: Nutcracker w/ a pick (500700 lbs. pressure). ● Hoopoe, Upua epops ○ Beak is used for catching insects ○ Most like: Tweezers ● Osprey, Pandion haliatus ○ Beak is used for tearing flesh ○ Most like hooked pliers ● Pileated Woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus ○ Beak is used for making holes in trees ○ Most like a large wood awl ● Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodius ○ Beak is used for catching fish ○ Most like spear, forceps ● Scarlet Honeycreeper, Drepanis coccinea ○ Beak is used for sipping nectar ○ Most like curved straw Nutritional Requirements Pets: Cats ● Needs are universal b/c all pet cats are the same species ● Hypercarnivores: Need a high animal protein diet; no plants consumed unless inside bodies of prey. Notable issues: Vitamin B deficiency: Neurological problems, seizures Taurine deficiency: Irreversible retinal damage, heart condition, abnormal development Arachidonic acid deficiency: Inhibition of inflammation, poor functioning of digestive system ● Without the appropriate nutrients, many issues arise. Pets: Dogs ● Their needs are universal due to the fact that dogs are the same species. ● They are more omnivorous of the carnivora category. Notable issues: Vitamin C excess: Kidney stones Vitamin B excess: Liver damage Magnesium deficiency: Tetany (think tetanus), incoordination, depression Pets: Ferrets ● Universal needs b/c all ferrets are within the same species. ● Hypercarnivores: Need diet high in animal protein; no plants consumed unless inside bodies of prey. Notable issues: Insulinoma: Pancreatic cancer resulting from diet (similar to diabetes II but not quite). Finickiness: Can be a challenge to get ferrets to eat certain foods 2/18/16 Pets: Fish ● Speciesspecific → depending on wild diet: coral, grass, algae, fish Notable issues: Vitamin C deficiency: Broken back disease Bcomplex deficiencies: Brain, spinal cord, nerve disorders. B vitamin: important for nervous system Aflatoxin: From moldy food, poor blood clotting, most common cause of death Pets: Reptiles ● Speciesspecific → depending on wild diet: plants, poodles, pigs, insects Notable issues: Vit. A deficiency: Swollen eyes, weight loss, skin infections. Vit. C deficiency: Mouth Rot (stinky, sorefilled mouth) in snakes in snakes and lizards. Poor quality protein arthritis → animal protein. Pets: Rodents ● Species specific → depending on wild diet: seeds, grass, wood, insects Notable issues: Vit. C deficiency: Appetite loss and painful joints (scurvy), especially common in guinea pigs. Obesity: Can prevent rabbit from eating cecotropes (their first round of fecal matter), causing broad nutrient deficiency. Copper deficiency: Anemia Pets: Arthropods (exoskeleton, paired appendages) ● Speciesspecific → depending on wild diet: insects, carrion, fruit Notable issues: Dehydration: Can be lethal; hermit crabs need fresh and saltwater. Malnourished prey: Leads to malnourished predators. Food Processing:Four Stages 1. Ingestion: Consuming food item 2. Digestion: Starts w/ mechanical/chewing and chemical/saliva in the mouth, breaking down food into absorbable chemicals 3. Absorption: Cells take up nutrients 4. Elimination/excretion: Wastes eliminated Feeding Mechanisms Filter Feeders (very common in aquatic systems) ● Mouths are giant sifters/tentacles for small prey ● Common in aquatic systems (fresh and salt) ● Ex: Humpback whales, clams, oysters Substrate Feeders ● Live on or inside their food source ● Ex: Leaf miners, maggots Fluid Feeders ● Suck nutrientsrich fluid from a living host or flower ● Parasites or pollinators ● Ex: Mosquitoes, aphids, hummingbirds Bulk Feeders ● Eat larger food than animals using previous strategies ● Tentacles, claws, pincers, hands, beaks ● Extreme bulk feeders eat huge amount of food for their body size, long time b/w meals, slow digestion. ● Ex: Constricting snakes, alligators, scorpions, tarantulas ○ In some cases, the lower mandible unhinges from skull to eat super large animals (slide 11). ○ Snakes with slow digestion, eating a huge chunk of food, makes it have lots of nutrients from its meal and it will not eat again for a while, lessening the amount of competition. Digestive Compartments Intracellular Digestion ● Food vacuoles are simplest compartments ● This digestion is defined by hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles ● Only form used by simple animals such as sponges and hydra Extracellular Digestion ● Food breakdown in compartments continuous w/ food outside the body ● Allows consumption of larger food chunks ● Single opening called the gastrovascular cavity ● Gastrovascular cavity is the simplest extracellular digestion layout ● Food ingested and waste excreted via same opening ● Not very efficient, but works for simple animals Variation in Alimentary Canals ● Digestion is more complex in more complex animals ● Complete digestive tract (alimentary canal) has two openings: mouth and anus ● Food moving in only one direction allows compartmentalization and variation The earthworm is a good example of a simple alimentary canal ● Muscular pharynx sucks food in through the mouth ● Crop stores and moistens ● Muscular gizzard grinds w/ sand and gravel ● Intestine is the site of additional digestion and absorption ● Earthworms have a typhlosole (folding of intestine) The grasshopper’s canal is more complicated/differentiated. ● Most digestion occurs in the midgut. ● Cecae greatly increase surface area for digestion (a common theme in biology). Birds’ canals are even more differentiated. ● Stomach is used for more advanced chemical digestion. ● Intestine has greater differentiation, allowing more thorough absorption of nutrients. Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus Oral Cavity ● Initial mechanical digestion → teeth ● Initial chemical digestion → saliva ● The tongue shapes food into a bolus/ball of food and pushes it into the pharynx Pharynx: The throat region, opens into the esophagus or trachea. Esophagus: Transports bolus to stomach. Stomach The stomach’s primary role is digestion of proteins. It usually has a very low pH to aid in food breakdown.
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