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GEO 130, Chapter 4 Reading Notes

by: Sophia Clark

GEO 130, Chapter 4 Reading Notes GEOL 130

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Sophia Clark

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These are notes on Chapter 4 of The Essentials to Oceanography for GEO 130 at the University of Pennsylvania.
Oceanography: Oceans & Climate
Dr. Jane Dmochowski
Class Notes
GEO 130 GEO Geology
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Clark on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 130 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Jane Dmochowski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Oceanography: Oceans & Climate in Geology at University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Wednesday, February 10, 2016 GEO 130: Essential of Oceanography— Chapter 5: Marine Sediments DR. JANE DMOCHOWSKI SPRING 2016, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Introduction - Sediments: eroded fragments of dirt, dust and other debris that settle at bottom of ocean floor • Useful for: information about past geographic distribution of marine organisms, movement of ocean floor, climate changes, global extinction • Sediment can be lithified and become sedimentary rocks • Sediments come from, erosion from rock, living organisms and minerals dissolved in water • Can know the origin of sediment by its minerals and texture • texture: size and shape of particles Section 4.1— How Are Marine Sediments Collected, and What Historical Events do they Reveal? - Difficulty in studying marine sediments- inaccessibility - Collecting Marine Sediments: • dredges: first mechanism used to scoop sediment from ocean floor - bucket-like device, didn’t work because would disturb sediment & couldn’t go past sea floor • gravity corer: hollow steel tube, second mechanism used to get sediment - collected cores (cylinders of sediment and rock), depth of penetration limited • rotary drilling: current mechanism, special made ships that collect cores from deep ocean 1 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 • 1963: U.S National Science Foundation funded project to discover more about subseafloor sediment, used drills from drilling companies and brought together multiple institutions • Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP): began in 1968, could drill up to 3.7 miles deep - Confirmed sea floor spreading by) • sea floor getting older farther away from mid-ocean ridge • sediment thickness increasing as farther away from mid-ocean ridge • Earth’s magnetic field polarity reversals • Ocean Drilling Program (ODP): DSDP increased to include 20 other countries • Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP): US, Japan and European Union, used multiple ships with drills - goals: to understand Earth’s history and system processes - Environmental Conditions Revealed by marine Sediments: • Analyzing cylindrical cores can tell us: - materials on ocean floor over time - conditions of environment - sea surface temperature - mineral supply - ocean current patterns - volcanic eruptions - major extinction events - movement of tectonic plates - Paleooceanography: study of how ocean, atmosphere and land have interacted to produce changes in ocean chemistry, circulation, biology and climate • looking at sediments in North Atlantic Ocean and others have show abrupt changes that occurred because of melting freshwater from glaciers 2 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 Section 4.2— What are the Characteristics of Lithogenous Sediment? - Lithogenous sediment (terrigenous sediment): comes from pre-existing rock from continents or islands (erosion, volcanic eruptions or blown dust) - Origins of Lithogenous Sediment: • weathering: actions such as water, temp extremes, chemical efffects break rocks into smaller pieces • eroded: small rocks being picked up and transported • eroded materials carried to ocean in streams, wind, glaciers and gravity • can settle in dams, lagoons etc, but can also be transported to deep-sea by turbidity currents - Composition of Lithogenous Sediment: • quartz: a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen - very durable - most sediment pieces are mostly quartz most sediment that get to deep-sea are from winds • - Sediment Texture: • Wentworth scale of grain size: scale system for lithogenous sediment - bounders (largest), cobbles, pebbles, granules, sand, silt, clay (smallest) - sediment size is connected to energy need to lay the sediment down • wave action strong- cobbles and boulders • low energy- fine-grained particles • lowest energy- clay, stick together cause so small • sorting: measure of uniformity of grain size and can be determined by selectivity of transportation process - sediment with same size particles= well sorted • Ex. transportation method: wind - sediment with different size particles= badly sorted 3 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 • Ex. transportation method: glaciers - Distribution of Lithogenous Sediment: • Marine sediment can be categorized as: - neritic deposits: found on continental shelfs and shallow water, usually coarse grained - pelagic deposits: deep-ocean basin, fine grained • Nercitic Deposits: sediment from rocks on landmass, usually coarse-grained, accumulates quickly on continental shelf, slope and rise - Beach Deposits: sediment locally available, washed down from rivers, transported by waves onto the shoreline - Continental Shelf Deposits: deposits from last ice age - Turbidite Deposits: deposits that settle on continental rise and eventually abyssal plains. Are transported through turbidity currents - Glacial Deposits: poorly sorted deposts, found on continental shelf. Laid down during most recent ice age. • ice rafting: new glacial deposits occuring on Antarctica and Iceland, as ice melts, sediment trapped in it floats to bottom of ocean • Pelagic Deposits: fine grained, accumulated slowly on deep-ocean floor. Usually volcanic eruptions, windblown dust - Abyssal clay (red clays): 70% fine, clay sized particles from continents (oldest sediment) • contain a lot of oxidized iron, usually brown-red Section 4.3— What are the Characteristics of Biogenous Sediment? - Biogenous sediment: remains of hard parts of once-living organisms • Origin of Biogenous Sediment: • accumulated hard-pieces of once living organisms (shells, bones, teeth) • Macroscopic biogenous sediment: large enough to see (usually shells, bones & teeth of large organisms) 4 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 • Microscopic biogenous sediment: particles that can’t be seen with blind eye - made by microscopic organisms, shells (tests) shed, and these pieces become sediment - ooze: deposts of microscopic biogenous sediment on deep-ocean floor - Organisms that makeup microscopic sediment: algae and protozoans - Composition of Biogenous Sediment: • Most common components: calcium carbonate & silica • Silica: come from diatom algae and radiolarian protozoans - diatoms: photoshynthesis b/c plants, live on upper surface of water • planktonic: free-floating - diatomaceous earth: a light rock that is made up of diatom tests and clay - radiolarians: also planktonic, long spikes/rays of silica coming out of shells - siliceous ooze: accumulation of siliceous tests from diatoms, radiolarians and other siliceous secreting animals • Calcium Carbonate: two sources of calcium carbonate are foraminifers & coccolithophores - coccolithophors: single-celled algae, make thin shields of calcium carbonate • photosynthesize, need sunlight • very small, also called nannoplankton When dies, individual plates (coccoliths), detach from organism and • accumulate on sea floor • chalk: accumulation of coccoliths, white in color, used by humans for many things (like chalk for chalkboards) - foraminifers: single-celled protozoans, vary in size. Don’t photosynthesize, eat other organisms. • Make hard calcium carbonate test that organism inhabits • calcareous ooze: deposits that are made primarily of calcareous-secreting organisms 5 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 - Distribution of Biogeneous Sediment: • Distribution of biogeneous sediment depends on 3 things: 1. productivity: number of organisms present on surface water 2. destruction: skeletal remains (tests) dissolve in seawater 3. dilution: deposits of other sediments gets mixed with biogeneous sediments (and biogeneous sediment makes up < 30% of the deposit, therefore making the deposit not biogeneous ooze) Neritic Deposits: even though is mainly lithogeneous sediment, macro and • microscopic biogeneous material can be included - Carbonate Deposits: carbonate deposits have CO3 in chemical formula • limestones: rocks in marine environment that are mainly calcium carbonate - most likely formed in warm, shallow water - Stromatolites: lobate structures with thin layers of carbonate. Made in warm, shallow water with high salinity • Pelagic Deposits: microscopic biogenous ooze common on deep-sea floor - Siliceous ooze: contains at least 30% of hard remains from silica-secreting organisms • seawater continuously dissolving silica ooze, to accumulate on seafloor has to be produced faster then seawater can dissolve it - rate of production faster than rate of dissolution - Calcareous Ooze and CCD: calcareous ooze at least 30% of calcareous- secreting animals destruction varies depending on depth • - warmer surface, doesn’t dissolve as easily because saturated with calcium carbonate - colder deeper depths, has more calcium dioxide—> dissolves calcium carbonate • higher pressure speeds up dissolution 6 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 • lysocline: depth of ocean when CO2 is high enough + pressure high enough to begin dissolving calcium carbonate • Calcite compensation depth (CCD): depth where calcite sediment isn’t present, because dissolves almost instantly Section 4.4— What are the Characteristics of Hydrogenous Sediment? Hydrogenous sediment: from dissolved material in water - Origin of Hydrogenous Sediment: • precipitate: when certain materials come out of a solution - usually occurs when change in conditions occurs - Composition and Distribution of Hydrogenous Sediment: • relatively small percentage of sediment in ocean • Manganese Nodules: round, hard lumps of manganese, iron and other metals (5-20cm in diameter) - layered structure around a central object • Phosophates: phosophorus-bearing components coat rocks & nodes on continental shelf • Carbonates: - aragonite & calcite most important carbonate minerals in sediment • aragonite becomes calcite over time • Metal Sulfites: mostly near hydrothermal vents and black smokers. Contain iron, nickel, copper, zinc, silver • Evaporites: - evaporite minerals: created when high evaporation rates (dry climates) - in restricted circulation oceans, where in past may have evaporated completely 7 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 Section 4.5— What are the Characteristics of Cosmogenous Sediment? Cosmogenous sediment: from extraterrestrial sources - Origin, Composition and Distribution of Cosmogenous Sediment: • microscopic spherules & macroscopic meteor debris • spherules: small globular masses - some silicate formed by extraterrestrial impact events on Earth - tektites: molten pieces of crust that rained down on earth and can create tektite fields • meteor debris: rare, but can found near meteor impact sites - meteorite: material from meteor debris • either silicate or iron and nickel materials Section 4.6— How are Pelagic and Neritic Deposits Distributed? - Mixtures of Marine Sediment: no marine sediment is purely one type, they are always a mixture of multiple, with some frequent variants • Calcareous oozes and siliceous material • clay-sized lithogenous particles are carried by wind around world, so are part of every mixture • biogenous ooze includes 70% fine-grained lithogenous clays • lithogenous sediment has small amts of biogenous • multiple types of hydrogenous sediment • small amounts of cosmogenous sediment mixed in all types of sediment - Neritic Deposits: • 1/4 of ocean floor • mostly lithogenous (coarse grained as result of being close to shore) - Pelagic Deposits: • 3/4 ocean floor (deep basin) 8 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 • mostly biogenous calcareous ooze (shallow deep-ocean areas) • fine lithogenous deposits found in deep areas of ocean basin - How Sea Floor Sediments Represent Surface Conditions: • biogenous tests can be found pretty close to where the animals lived even though currents can carry tests thousands of km. This is because fall to ocean floor through fecal pellets - Worldwide Thickness of Marine Sediments: • areas of most thickness occur on continental shelves and rises & mouths of major rivers - b/c close to major sources of lithogenous sediment • least thickness closest to youngest ocean floor (mid-ocean ridge) Section 4.7— What Resources Do Marine Sediments Provide? - Energy Resources: • Petroleum: remains of microscopic organisms buried in marine sediments - more than 30% of petroleum production from marine petroleum - will continue increased use in coming years • Gas Hydrates: compact chemical structures — a lot of the time are methane hydrates - methane hydrates could be harnessed for energy, but difficult to extract and control & as result not economically feasible currently - Other Resources: • Sand and Gravel: used for concrete, recreational beaches - second most important economic deposit after petroleum - important because sand/gravel contain gem-quality diamonds, tin + others within the sediment • Evaporative Salts: indicate large scale evaporation - Gypsum: casts & molds in housing walls 9 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 - Halite: common table salt, various other daily human needs • Phosphorite (phosphate Minerals): - used to create phosphate fertilizer - usually found in shallow deposits • Manganese Nodules and Crusts: - large concentrations of manganese, iron and copper, nickel and cobalt - political issues with mining rights in deep ocean has hindered greater progress • Rare-Earth Elements: 17 chemically similar elements - used in technological items- cellphones, TV’s, lightbulbs, batteries for cars - deep-ocean hot springs brought rare elements to surface of sea floor 10


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