New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Note for ECE 6354 with Professor Hebert at UH


Note for ECE 6354 with Professor Hebert at UH

Marketplace > University of Houston > Note for ECE 6354 with Professor Hebert at UH

No professor available

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

No professor available
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Department

This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Houston taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.

Similar to Course at UH


Reviews for Note for ECE 6354 with Professor Hebert at UH


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/06/15
This means that some serious signal processing is required by the retina and the brain to edit out these structures in your visual perception There are two types of photoreceptors rods and cones Rods are responsible for low level light detection and are most sensitive in the bluegreen They are very light sensitive and motion sensitive but at the cost of resolution Rods are virtually missing in the fovea the center of the visual eld but are scattered elsewhere throughout the eye thus governing peripheral vision as well as nighttime vision At night the fovea is very insensitive and most of the visual information is being carried by rods in the periphery of your eye Cones carry the color information and provide higher resolution but at the cost of sensitivity Cones are concentrated in the fovea providing high resolution central daytime vision Rods contain a bluegreen pigment called rhodopsin Cones contain three pigments a bluesensitive pigmentm 447 nm a green sensitive pigment called chlorolabe 540 nm and a red sensitive pigment called erythrolabe 577 nm These three pigments are the pigments responsible for quotprimary colorsquot Individuals missing one or two of these pigments will have various forms of color blindness Notice that three pigments is by no means standard There is a species of shrimp that has 20 different photoreceptor pigments The graph below indicates the wavelength dependence of the three cone pigments in the human eyem m i h39 o 39x 39i z 9 E 39M 5 o m a 39i E 3 E 39 9 Q 50 f39H 31 a I L z t r 39 L 39r O 39 er 39 39 i g u k I rt 25 UJ C 0 not 450 500 550 600 39 asu WAV El ENGTH NANOMETE H S The idea of trireceptor vision was worked out far before the physical mechanism of retinal pigments was understood A common diagram for describing human color perception was developed by the International Commission on Illumination CIE The CIE diagram is an attempt to precisely quantify the trireceptor nature of human vision Color pereeptrons were measured by glvmg subjects yanous eombrnauons of the three standard ClE pnmary eolors 435 8 nm5461 nm and 700 nm and measunng therr pereepuons These pereeptrons are plotted on an my dlagram ealledthe CIE Chromatrerty dlagramm The pure eolors he along the outer loeus of the dlagram andthe eenter of the dlagram CIE lllumrnant C ls the CIE de ned whlte Thus any pornt on tlus dlagram ean be unlquely rndeated by an Ky yalue Therefore m some fundamental way only two basls funeuons are really requlre to desenbe any partreular eolor or hue Thls fact wlll beeome yery rmportantto us m eolor TV Jumprng aheadjust abrt rt ls rnteresung to eompare the CIE Chromauerty dlagram agarnst eommonly observed eolors 1n the follow graph the CIE Chromauerty dlagram ls overlald agarnst surface eolors of eommon palms and dyes the gray blob as well as the pnmary eolortnangle ofthe Amenean NTSC Nauonal Televlslon Systems Commrttee eolor teleyrsron system and the European PAL Phase Altematron Llne rate and SECAM Sequenual Couleur ayee Mem orre systems 131 7 mm 05m Hm E Vlsual persrstenee The human eye retarns an lmage for afraeuon of a seeond after rt vlews the lmage Thls property ealled persrstenee of vlslon ls essenual to all vlsual dsplay teehnologres The basl ldeals qurte slmple smgle sull frames are presented at a hlgh enough rate so that persrstenee ofvlslon rntegrates these strll frames rnto motron Motron plctures onglnally set the frame rate at 16 frames per seeond Thls was rapldly found to be unaeeeptable and the frame rate was rnereasedto 24 frames per seeond In Europe tlus was ehangedto 25 frames per seeond as the European powerlme frequency ls 50 Hz Just as an aslde 24 frameseeond Amencan movles are rouunely broadeast at 25 Hz m Europe the 4 dlfference does not seem to bother anyonel When NTSC teleyrsron standards were lntxoduced the frame rate was set at 30 Hz 12 the 60 Hz hne frequency Then the rate was moved to 29 97 Hz to marntarn 4 5 MHz between the vlsual and audlo earners As we wlll see re tlus declslon has lead to some problems m developlng an HDTV standard Movles lmed at 24 frames per seeond are slmply eonyertedto 29 97 frames per seeond on teleyrsron broadeastmg Now there ls aglrteh For some reason the bnghter the strll lmage presentedto the vlewer the shorter the persrstenee of vlslon So brrght plctures requlre more frequentrepeuuon Lfthe spaee between plctures ls longer than the penod of persrstenee of vlslon re then the lmage lckers Large brrght theater projectors avold thrs problem by plaemg rotaung shutters m front of the lmage m order to merease the repetrtron rate by a faetor of 2 to 48 or three to 72 wrthout changlng the aetual lmages Unfortunately there ls no easy way to put a shutter m front of a teleyrsron broadeastl Therefore to arrange for two ashes per frame the flashes are ereated by rnterlaemg The basl ldea here ls that a slngle frame ls seannedtwree The frrst sean meludes only the odd llnes the next sean meludes only the even llnes Wrth thrs method the number of ashes per frame ls two and the freldrate ls double the frame rate Thus NTSC systems have afreldrate of 59 94 Hz and PALSECAM systems afreldrate of 50 Hz Although rnterlaemg sounds llke a great ldea re a number of aberratrons appear due to the faet that you really do not have aframe rate of 5060 Hz For example vemcally adjacent plcture elements do not appear at the same trme lfthe seene ls moymg then thrs ereates a senes of serratrons on the edge ofmoymg objects Other aberrauons melude sueh tlungs as mrsalrgnment where the honzontal edges of one sean do not mateh wth the next and rnterlrne lcker where slrghtmrsmatehes between subsequent llnes eause a shlmmenng effeet The other situation that must be considered is rapid motion If the still frame images are presented at too low a rate rapid motion becomes jerky and odd looking This is especially a problem in action movies where high speed chase scenes are common However as of yet there has been little interest in converting movie projectors to either 2997 or 30 Hz due to the large investments in such equipment 11 Basic black and white television In a basic black and white TV a single electron beam is used to scan a phosphor screen The scan is interlaced that is it scans twice per photographed frame The information is always displayed from left to right After each line is written when the beam returns back to the left the signal is blanked remember the standard was invented before digital video When the signal reached the bottom it is blanked until it returns to the top to write the next lineIQJ C A i r R an a 7 a I a f f r 5 3 J Odd III39IES Inactive lines 539 Even lines D Inactive lines in 1st vertical trace ll39l 1st vertical retrace in 2 vertical trace in 2d uenical relrace ism L i 15 eld A 262V ilnes 2d field 2529 lines 1 Frame 525 lines Conventional NTSC has 525 vertical lines However lines number 248 to 263 and 511 to 525 are typically blanked to provide time for the beam to return to the upper left hand comer for the next scan Notice that the beam does not return directly to the top but zigzags a bitl Hnnzumal vanes e Hurlzcmal tetraces eta iiEvenllelrJ thcaYHyhnckhme u m 2 t ts m Dettnetntg D a H llaces Mana 44 euaees nmpmude A pit 3 am gt v v ettaee tntraen The vemcal seannrng srgna1 for eonventaonal black and whrte NTSC rs qurte strmghtforward 1t rs srrnply aposmve ramp untrl rt rs trrne for the beam to return to the upper left hand corner Then rt rs a negatave ramp dunng the blanked sean hnes 2452253 511525 2247 25451 meme mtewets The horrzonta1 sean srgna1rs very rnueh the sarne The honzonta1 sean raters 52529 97 or15734 Hz Therefore 63 6 us are anoeated per hne Typreany about 10 us ofthxs rs devotedto the blankmg hne on the honzonta1 sean There are 427 prxels per honzontal sean hnem and so eaeh prxel rs seanned for approxrrnately 125 ns The 427 prxel number comes from takmg 14MHz assurnrng 53 3 us per aetrve sean and notang that two pnrels encompass eaeh wavelength The eleetron bearn ls analog modulated aeross the honzontal llne The rnoolulataon then translates rnto rntensrty ehanges m eleetron bearn and thus gray seale levels on the preture sereen Blanking signals SYNC PUISES eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee quot7 Wh The eornbrnatron honzontal blanklng slgnal anol synehronrzatron pulse ls qurte well de ned For black and whrte TV the front porch ls 0 02 tunes the drstanee between pulses and the back porch ls 0 no tarnes the drstanee between pulsesm I k H 008 H l Horlzonal Hm I 1 sync pulse Front porch 006 H U 75 0 02 H Back porch cuquot 3 50 Picture 015 H fl Informatlun Ho zwlal E blanklng lt 25 pulse 0 gt l I Tlme For eolor srgnals a eolor synehronrzataon slgnal ealleolthe eolor burstrs rnserteolrnto the back porch of the honzontal blanklng slgnal Not only oloes thrs set the phase of the eolor slgnal rnore on thrs later rt also provldes a really easy way to tell lfyou have a blackrandrwhlte slgnal no eolor burst or a eolor slgnal wrth a 8710 eyele eolor burst 10 DI25H MAX 0I45H MIN olaH MAX The vemcal blankmg signal also has anumber ofsynchromzahon pulses mcludedm 1 These are illustrated below 11 Equanzmg Ven sync Equahnug pu se pul5e nurse Max c m v a 9 mieva mienEl Imewal vaHagE ag 4 100 nk riva 05N4 1 l Hnnznnm Sync pmses 75 25m Law a wmze Ieve I 125 ezsmjL n4 Zem earner Hm Mankmg 4 kammm o F Top 039 pmme mama Mme 4 DSHgtHlt ur i Low The celevrsron bandwrdth xs 6 MHz The subrcamer for the color is 3 58 MHz offthe camer for the monochrome mformauon The sound camens 4 5 MHz off the camer for the monochrome mformanon There is a gap of125 MHz on the low end and 0 25 MHz on the hrgh endto avord crossrtalk wnh other channelsfg SOUND PlCTURE COLOR CARRIER CARRIER SUBCARRIER t l 1 005 lLHNMSMH l 545571560 l l 1 Hon P l MHz r AZMHI 4 l A1 25MHU 45 MHZ 1 F 60MH1 J Televlslon has a rnaxrrnurn frequency banolwrolth of 6 MHz Thls says that the hrghest resolutron slgnal ls sornethrng llke loMHz or 166 7 ns Thls ls eonsrstent wth a 330 elernent sean llne wrth a 8 7 us blanklng urne 111 ColorTelevlslon one of the great eleetrreal englneenng tnurnphs was the oleveloprnent of eolor televrsron in such a way 11ml it nzmained campa blz with Mark andwhile televixian A major dnvlng force behlnd the majority of eunent eolor TV standards was to allow blackrandrwhlte TVs to eontrnue to be able to recelve a valldTV slgnal alter eolor servlce was m plaee The seleetron of the dlsplay pnrnary eolors oeeurreol rst re clue to the relatrvely srnall range of avallable phosphors The earnera lter eharaetensues were then establrsheol next m oroler to provlde a rnateheol system for aeeurate eolor representauon However over the years the earnera andrecelver lters have been olelrberately rnrsrnateheol m oroler to obtarn hlgher bnghtness values Typlcally entreal eolors sueh as esh tones are set to be aeeurately reproolueeol anol nonrcntlcal eolors are allowedto dnft 1n the rnost basl form eolor televrsron eoulol slmply be rrnplernenteol by havlng earneras wrth three lters red green and blue and then transrnrttrng the three eolor slgnals over wrres to arecelver wth three eleetron guns and three dnve erreurts Unfortunately tlus ldeallzed vlew ls not eornpatrble wth the prevlously alloeateol 6 MHz banolwrolth ofaTV ehannel 1t ls also not eornpatrble wth prevlously exlsung rnonoehrorne reeervers Therefore rnoolern eolor TV ls carefully struetureolto preserve all the onglnal rnonoehrorne rnfonnauon re andjust aolol on the eolor lnformauon on top To do tlus one slgnal ealleol lurnrnanee Y has been ehosen to oeeupy the major pomon 0A MHz of the ehannel Y eontarns the bnghtness rnfonnatron and the oletarl Y ls the rnonoehrorne TV slgnal Conslder the rnoolel of a seene belng lrneol wth three earneras one earnera has a real lter one earnera a green lter and one earnera a blue lter Assume that the earneras all aohusteol so that when pornteol at whlte they eaeh glve equal voltages To ereate the Y slgnal the red green and blue rnputs to the Y slgnal rnust be balaneeol to eornpensate for the eolorpereepuon mlsbalance of the eye The govemlng equauon ls Y 03XR 0590 011XB Thls ls the rnonoehrorne part of the TV slgnal 1t of clally takes up the rst 4 MHz of the 6 MHz banolwrolth of the TV slgnal However m praeuee the slgnal ls usually banollrrnrteol to 3 2 MHz m order to avold rnterfenng wth the ehrornrnanee slgnal Two slgnals ate then eteated to eany the ehtomtnanee tnfotmauon one of these slgnals ts ealled Q and the othet ts ealled I They ate telatedto the R G andB slgnals by Q 021 XR 052gtG 03 XB 06 XR 028gtG 032 XB The postttye polanty of Q ts purple the negattye ts green The postuye polanty of 1 ts orange the negauye ts eyan Thus Q ts often ealledthe gteeneputplel ot purplvgreen axls tnfotmauon andI ts often ealledthe orangemyan ot cyanrorange axls tnfotmatton 1t tutns out that the human eye ts mote senstuye to spaual yanauons tn the orangemyan than tt ts on the gteen putple Thus the orangemyan ot 1 slgnal has a maxtmum bandwtdth of l 5 MHz and the gteen putple only has a maxtmum bandwtdth of 0 5 MHz Now the Q and 1 slgnals are both modulatedby a 3 58 MHz eantet waye However they are modulated out of 90 degrees out of phase These two slgnals are then summedtogethet to make the c ot ehtomtnanee slgnal The nomenelatute of the two slgnals atds tn temembenng whatts gomg on The 1 slgnal ts Inphaxe wtth the 3 58 MHz eatnet wave The Q slgnal ts tn 94Wquot t e 14 of the way around the ettele ot 90 degrees out of phase ot orthogonal wtth the 3 58 MHz eametwaye Now thts new ehtomtnanee slgnal formed by 1 and Q has the tntetesttng ptopetty that the magmde of the slgnal teptesents the eolot satutatton andthe phase of the slgnal teptesents the huem M F y c stgnul t U KDJSW I IDA 907 J Y 57 lea t a 9 antst t yellow BTY 1 E V pteen glue 5 t w eteen 2w 27039 Now stnee the 1 and Q slgnals are clearly phase senstttye re some sott of phase reference must be supplted Thts reference ts suppltedattet eaeh honzontal sean andts tneluded on the back poteh othe honzontal syne pulse The phase reference eonststs of 8710 eyeles of the 3 58 MHz slgnal 1t ts ealled the color butst and looks somethtng llke thsml Horlzonlai sync pmse Buvsl ol 353MH1 358MH1 3 58 MHZ color subcarner burs 0 Wm 1640 cycles Video swgna Blankmg kPqureq Honzomal blankmg Tune 4 mlerval Thus the chrommance signal begms to take on a hfe 0mg own 77 thhout consideration of the formation 1 and Q signals The followmg is a sketch ofhow the melee signal wouldlook for a colorbar test signing owl 5m hum mew 5 awz uni namzw ms 20 z zaa r wrrrnanwzscmr39 mu The followmg s an altemauve way ofsketchmg the same xdea 16 WI R G H Blll lu l0 6 B Elk x 4 J r t t t nu 059 CHRUMA W 358 MHz 90 2357 U RY GY E Y In some fundamental way 1 and Q slgnals ean be thought of as basls funetrons for the c slgnal However they are not the only posslble set of basls funehons To understand the other ophons rt helps to sketeh the phase relatrons of the chromlnance slgnals m reference to the eolor burst 17 Rm R V CSTgnaT 1W W a 390 10360 I 94 we 160quot 57 0 Bursl E 7 V yeHow green 3quot 347 Gveen 2A1quot 270 The color buTsT seTs The enhTe phase of The sysTenn The 1 ans Ts de ned To be 57 degrees from The color buTsT The Q aTns Ts de ned To be 90 degrees from ThaT If The ehTonnTnanee sTgna1 Ts eonineTeTy 1 orangercyan Then TT le1 he on The 1 ans e TfTT Ts eonineTeTy QgTeenepqu1eTTwTu he along The Q aTns KThe sTgna1 Ts eonineTeTy yellowrgreen Then TTwTu he dTTeeTTy on The buTsT aTns Now TheTe are Two TnnpoTTanT places To look 90 degrees from The buTsT Ts a sTgna1 eaned ReY theh Ts The dTTTeTenee beTween The Ted sTgnaT andThe thnTnanee Qnngany The ReY sTgna1 was seT aT 90 degrees andThen The 33 degree shTfT To The LQ axes deTeTnnTned enpennnenTany 180 degrees Torn The buTsT Ts BeY theh Ts theh Ts The dTTTeTenee beTween The blue sTgna1 and The thnTnanee FTnany 246 degrees Torn The buTsTTs GeY theh Ts The defeTenee beTween The green sTgna1 and The TunnTnanee Now noTe pameulany The NY and BeY sTgnaTs sTnee The NY sTgna1 hes on The y anTs and The BeY sTgna1 on The n aTns wTTh reference To The color buTsT Then rerextractmg The veeToT eonnponenTs of These sTgnaTs sTnnply TequTTes nnulhplyTng The ehTonnTnanee by a eosTne oT sTne Wave FoT example To extract The BeY sTgnaT The ehTonnTnanee Ts nnulhphed by eoswT EW cosu39 r 39cosw a IJWF onsaw 6cos9 If a1owepass leTeT Ts used Then The seeond haTnnonTe sTgna1 ean be Tennoved1eawng onTyThe Tenn s T cpl505011 Lemur0 M vzcosw If The reference sTgna1 voTTage Ts seT aT 2 Then The fmal TesuTT Ts c eoso e theh Ts The errojecuon of c on BX A sTnnTTaT argument goes for NY eneepT The sTgna1 Ts demoduTaTed usmg The sTne TaTheT Than The eosTne Two synehTonous demoduTaToTs andThe assoeTaTed1owepass TTeTs are neededTo extract These sTgnaTs Block dTagTarns of a1TeTnauve ways To do ns are shown below 18 AMPS nuquot Lummmcg ncvw PM wow Hrrxr an MP uwoumwci N U a 3 EI39DD VIL 39 ADD 0 A A50nrv Ly n w gtw m cm m ADD m WS39 mm smc H L gtG V AD 0 INVKRY mo Awn v new Lunmnnc m vao f DU Aw CNRDMINANCE 6 U G moo m mama I ma nv LP a w MSS DEMOD PH ADDE R KINE 1 a H a 4 m a 9W mum m NW quotL ADD swc mm W An example ofa mrcuxtto do the demodulauon s gwen beloww 01 L a 7 Y demodulator 57V T vtd o a 53 MHZ stgnat chroma stgusn H i Y wueo Signal T a 55 MHz DSH BIGI w Nouee that once you have KY and B7Y then 67 eau be detemuhed by combmmg these two signals as 1397 70 51 R 7 H70 wu 7 Y Also notice that there is the when ofusmg RX 67 andB7Y eau be used as mputs to the color guns on the TV Theh ey eau be used as the low voltage hefehehee re and BJNGO you have R G and B happle out of the three guns We eau ddagram nus method o en eaned picture tube mamxmg by the ow than belowj l eti llnus M my 7 7 new to my notquot 1 t i mm f Menuquot DDVHIDUSS Guns W warm I h t mu 7 mm I 5ner t nku uer nthtym vtueu Wm rempastte hwy V umcn rhunnnl Alternatively the R G and B signals can be derived from the difference signals RY G Y B Y This is called pre picture tube matriXing and is shown belowm J Video drwe C 39 I I39I39Iliivlmus i I E h Rea I Wed Jun Inlm39IIIr me f Iquot 5 L mlur quot quot l H I r bandpass L 2 quot39 Gratin JGreenqun n5 quot 39Z 39 clarormus 3 II39 391quot 8 IIIIEIJW a E quot 39 Blue j Blue gun Thu Corima siIe Y snifl TUE video clmnnel Burst 39 JnIp r signnl Color Subcurnet rIscqulor Now for some subtleties It turns out that the human eye is more sensitive to spatial variations in the quotorangecyanquot than it is for the quotgreen purplequot Thus the quotorangecyanquot or I signal has a maximum bandwidth of 15 MHZ and the quotgreen purplequot only has a maximum bandwidth of 05 MHZ So when the signal is transmitted the 04 MHZ part of the signal is the Y component and then the C component formed of Q and I is shifted up to a center of 358 MhZ The audio signal is shifted further up to a center at 45 MHZ A souun PICTURE COLOR CARTER CARRIER SUBCA RRlER l I I 39A I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 05 125 545 55 50 MHZ I 1 I I 42 MHz I 1 I IZSWuk 45mn quot I 60MHz FJ Now there are some minor difficulties If the full 15 MHZ of the I signal is transmitted on both sidebands then it will run into the audio signal at 45 MHZ Thus only the lower sideband is transmitted between 05 and 15 MHZ The upper sideband for both the Q and I signals is limited at 05 MHz Now notice that the lower sideband of the I signal runs into the upper part of the Y signal For this reason sometimes the I signal is bandlimited to 05 MHz on both sidebands thus reducing the spatial resolution of the quotorangecyanquot signal Relalive amplilurle Yvideo a I l 42 i o Freq MHz Qvideu 0 C d 8 at if l a39 land 0 modulation 0 353 Yu39ldeu I land 0 l9 modulalion Pictulem 5 39 carrier 139 Sound carrier U H3939r f39I L 6639 5725 7051 72 quot Color subcarrler IV A quick overview of PAL and SECAM in relation to NTSC There are three major TV standards used in the world today These are the American NTSC National Television Systems Committee color television system the European PAL Phase Altemation Line rate and the FrenchFormer Soviet Union SECAM Sequential Couleur avec Memoire 23 The largest difference between the three systems is the vertical lines NTSC uses 525 lines interlaced while both PAL and SECAM use 625 lines NTSC frame rates are slightly less than 12 the 60 Hz power line frequency while PAL and SECAM frame rates are exactly l2 the 50 Hz power line frequency lines active vertical aspect horizontal frame rate lines resolution ratio resolution NTSC 525 484 242 43 427 2994 PAL 625 575 290 43 425 25 SECAM 625 575 290 43 465 25 Summary table for existing interlaced color TV standards 24 All three systems use the same de nition for luminance l39 r 0299 164 0587 U 0l 14 13 However the three systems do not use the same de nitions for primary R G and B colors from the CIE diagram Summarizing the differences NTSC x y R 067 033 G 021 071 B 014 008 White 0310 0316 PALSECAM x y R 064 033 G 029 060 B 015 006 White 0313 0329 As you can see from the CIE drawing below these numbers essentially translate into a slightly small color triangle with the largest differences in the green 25 r I quot OHUC swan V N t gram H713 1 P22 1 ULOH metI1 7 39 GrL rLmsh Ewen 19quot0394 Yam 1 5W I 4 013 rlt y mm m Hlurulx qwrn r um nan u 21quot Ilamm r pmrxlb HOG A y 1 quotLu 1 w II I1 j M 1 all 0 I 59 mm 3 run The color encoding principles for the PAL system are the same as those of the NTSC system with one minor difference In the PAL system the phase of the RY signal is reversed by 180 degrees from line to line This is to reduce color errors that occur from amplitude and phase distortion of the color modulation sidebands during transmission Saying this more mathematically the chrominance signal for NTSC transmission can be represented in terms of the R Y and B Y components asl ix731 E if SiMWHH R i L 39 CSHquotcr39 The PAL signal terms its B Y component U and its RY component V and phase ips the V component line by line as 1 39 2 5mm 1 i cos n 1 i 11 m 5 H4 l The U and V components in PAL have roughly the same bandwidth as the I and Q components in NTSC Both U and V are approximately 13 MHz Recall that I is 15 MHZ and Q is 05 MHz In order to synchronize this phase ipping the color burst swings and 45 degrees about the axis Since the sign of the V component tracks with the phase of the color burse this then produces the required 180 degree line by line phase ip The U signal remains untouched RH PtUlU i 35 lE39RE39 E39V a X gillflq scrm may BLUE REGIUN mam quot141 i f x l 435quot l q mm 9 E39 1 239 EYNI REGION SECAM ls qulte dlfferent from bolln PAL and NTSC Although all lluee systems share a eommon lumlnanee slgnal Y and dlfference slgnals ReY andBeY re the SECAM system alffels very strongly from PAL and NTSC ln the manner ln wlnlell the slgnals are modulated 1n SECAM me KY and BeY slgnals are transmltted alternately every llne The Y slgnal lemalns on for eaen llne slnee there ls an odd number ofllnes on any glven sean any llne Will have ReY lnfolmauon on the rst frame and BeY on the seeond ml luuuml 5 mm All j ni w h l l u m sun 3 l I saw mu um 77 gt In l um um ml lulu mu m n03quot e e e e e e W I mm 395 27 Jun um mule ms 7 aquot VG lau mm m 7 lm I39 EVEN W nals e e e e e e toquot um um Y IY l 4 llquot l um um lv IIYVV e e Vquot r on HI quot 57 lo m MN uzl am e e e e e a l ml J4quot lumenmum malnlm 51mm I u lull lulnu n Im u u el Funnelmole me KY and BeY lnfolmauon ls transmltted on dlfferent subcarners The BeY subrcamer runs at 4 25 MHz and me ReY subcarnerruns at4 4 MHz The maxlmum posslble frequency oleylauons for me ReY slgnal ls e 506 kHz and 350 kHz and forthe BeY slgnal ls 7350 kHz and 506 ksz l In order to syneluonlze me llne symelnlng alternate KY and BeY syne slgnals are provlded fol nlne llnes dunng he yenleal blanklng interval followlng the equallzlng pulses after me yelueal syne Analog Television Two lectures of material Probably the single greatest human invention is television Although we may have some concerns about the content of what we see on TV the technology of TV has completely and irrevocably changed the human race As with audio recording television is designed to be perceived by biological components which may differ from person to person However the biological peculiarities of the human eye are much more exploited in television than in audio I The physiology of vision A Trireceptor theory of vision or why we use RGB monitors If you ask someone why red green and blue are used in computer monitors the immediate answer is quotBecause these are the primary colorsquot If you then ask quotBut why are these the primary colorsquot the answer you get is that quotIf you miX light of these colors together you can make any colorquot However if you then ask quotWhy is this soquot usually the answer is dead silence No doubt the person being asks the question thinks you are too weird for words However there are some very fascinating reasons why RGB are the primary colors and they have nothing to do with either light or Fourier series They lie in the nature of the human eye The major light sensing element in the human eye is the retinam irnerlivwling of uler mppomnq 0 st p memb39urm bps35 of 139 9 up nerve 9 E 39 a quot314111311 of ber layer ganglion cull I ganglion cell I39 quot quigs ganglionic call layer Pl 39 bipolar ell Inlmr plexlirzrln quotquot9quotquot 39 amuzrine cell anlripulul imuM nudge cells luyer 39 rod bipolurs mm hipnln 6 i f hsruzomai call call of Muller uulvr FMurry layer I i39mne hotly WM Wquot pm 4 1 with thlcus lawn rod body mi Inmlmq 3 I39l39lel39Tlhl inner SEgI39TICHH rod I d tune 2 i n xmi nml mw lnyer oular Ef gnenls cl rod and cone l r The retina consists of a number of different and important layers of cells Notice however that from an engineering viewpoint the retina is constructed upside down The major light receptors the rods and cones are at the bottom of the retina not at the top Thus light must pass through nerves blood and tissue before reaching the main photoreceptors


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.