Industrial Psychology notes Week of 2-15-2016
Industrial Psychology notes Week of 2-15-2016 Psyc 3640
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
2/15/2016 Chapter 3 cont’d Personality o Screen-out tests → Identify psychopathology Some people have forms of psychopathologydon’t want this for certain jobs such as the FBI, other jobs where they would have access to a gun Generally used for positions of public trust May only be administered after offer of employment Best known example is the MMPI o Screen-in tests → Identify normal personality May be administered as pre-employment tests Always administered fairly early Measure things like the Big 5 Examples include HPI, NEO-PI, PCI o Emotional intelligence Capacity that we have to understand our emotions and others emotions and also to regulate our own emotions High emotional intelligence—can change emotions quickly; very strong predictor of success according to those who believe in this Are some emotions easier to regulate than others? Class thoughts: Maybe based on experience with feeling certain emotionsskill of regulating certain emotions Feardo not know outcome of events; there is ambiguity in this situation Angerthis is a response to something that has already happened Controversial construct: Little agreement on definition or how to measure it Ability-based EI measures have lower overlap with Big 5 personality measures, whereas self-report EI measures overlap strongly with Big 5 Integrity Testing o Overt Integrity Test Asks questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors (employee theft, etc.) Difficult to get truthful responses from this i.e. there is nothing wrong with telling a lie if no one suffers any harm (True of False?) o Personality Based Integrity Test (Covert) Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs (conscientiousness, reliability, and social responsibility) High conscientiousness, high agreeableness, low neuroticism found to be more truthful i.e. do you like taking risks? Would your friends describe you as impulsive? 2/17/2016 Individual Assessment o Only one candidate (or a very few) is assessed on many different attributes o Likely to include ability & personality tests, personal history statement, & interviews o May include simulation exercises o Criticisms of individual assessment Issues of validity, reliability, & ethics Interviews o Structured interview Behavioral Descriptive Interview (BDI)—tries to predict future behavior by asking about past behavior Situational interview (SI)—places the interviewee in a future situation and is asked to tell the interviewer what they would do Critical incident method—example of a behavior that has occurred that one can compare interview answers against to decipher good answers from bad answers o Unstructured interview No rhyme or reason to the questions that are asked; each candidate may be asked different questions They make the interviewer and the interviewee feel in control o Tend to cover job knowledge, abilities, skills, personality, & person-org. fit o Positive relationship between interview performance and job performance (0.3 for unstructured interviews & 0.5 for structures interviews) Assessment Centers o Collection of procedures used for evaluation, often for possible promotion o Feels more comfortable than an interview; perceived as being fun & relevant o Typical characteristics Assessment done in groups Assessment done by groups (i.e., assessors) Multiple methods of assessment employed Assessment centers have “feel” of relevance Work Sample Tests o Measure job skills by taking samples of behavior under realistic, job-like conditions o Examples: Rudder control test for pilots Speech interview for foreign student Situational Judgment Tests o Present candidate with written scenario, then ask candidate to choose best response from series of alternatives o Multiple choice test o Important characteristics: Job-related Well-accepted by test takers Reduced adverse impact compared to other devices Special Topics in Assessment o Incremental validity Value in terms of increased validity of adding a particular predictor to an existing selection system Biographical Data o Biodata Includes type of information collected on an application blank e.g., previous jobs, education, & special training o Ecology model Events constituting person’s history represent choices made by individual to interact with his/her environment o Distinguishing characteristics of biodata Historical External Objective Discrete Control Relevant & noninvasive Grades & Letters of Recommendation o May be able to predict job offers, but not job success o Little serious research on validity & fairness of these devices Controversial Assessment Practices o Graphology Assumes traits can be assessed from various characteristics of a person’s handwriting o Polygraph Machine that measures person’s physiological reactions & signals deception Physiological responses assessed by the polygraph Other Assessment Techniques o Drug & alcohol testing Issues with acceptance by employees & prospective employees Legal Issues Drug Free Workplace Act o Integrity testing Overt integrity test Personality based integrity test Computer-based Assessment o Are we measuring same thing as we are with paper & pencil test or interview? Yes AND No o Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) Based on preliminary routing test; allows for test to be “tailored” to test-taker’s approximate level of ability 2/19/2016 Chapter 4—Job Analysis and Performance A Basic Model of Performance o Basic definitions Performance: Actions or behaviors Effectiveness: Evaluation of results of performance Productivity: Ratio of effectiveness (output) to cost of achieving that level of effectiveness (input) Most expensive line item of organizations is employees Campbell’s Model of Job Performance o 3 direct determinants of job performance Declarative knowledge (DK) The facts that we learn Procedural knowledge & skill (PKS) Knowing how to do things Motivation (M) Maximum vs. Typical Performance o Typical performance—how we tend to perform a job on a daily basis o Maximum performance—when we utilize all of our DK, PKS, and M Campbell’s Model o 8 basic performance components 3 are essential for every job Core task proficiency Demonstrated effort Maintenance of personal discipline Criterion Deficiency and Contamination o Ultimate (theoretical) criterion Ideal measure of all relevant aspects of job performance o Actual criterion Actual measure of job performance obtained o Differences between ultimate criterion & actual criterion represent imperfections in measurement – deficiency & contamination o Criterion deficiency When actual criterion is missing information that is part of behavior one is trying to measure o Criterion contamination When actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure
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