Concepts and Controversies in Biological Sciences
Concepts and Controversies in Biological Sciences
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EEMB 22 Concepts and Controversies in the Biological Sciences Office Hours TR 1150 LSB 4322 3 1 3 14 SCIENCE Knowledge gained through experiment observation amp deduction to produce reliable explanations amp predictions of phenomena with reference to the material and physical world Opinion and Belief based on speculation Difference between belief and theory Most of what we know about Scientists is based on the media gt highly inaccurate We trust science and scientists because our lives are surrounded by technology cultural perspective that works gt creates con dence in science gt Continues to increase as technology advances BIOLOGY What is it Study of life Interested in the relationship between humans and the environment because we impact the environment however it affects us circular loop Becoming Educated helps us make sound decisions regarding science THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND SCIENTIFIC THEORY Observation leads to questions Why How Etc Why is the most common question Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Results Conclusion testable answer Accepted hypothesis disprovable and repeatable SECTION 4114 Scientific Fraud Snuppy the Puppy Woo Suk Hwang Cloned dog worked well Also cloned humans coerced workers to donate eggs gt Motives fame and fortune Cold Fusion Pons and Fleishmann Infinite energy Authenticity questioned experiments not repeatable Motive research grants won more scom than grants no one could replicate their workgt way of identifying fraud in the scienti c realm They had made it all up British Crop Circles UFO landing strips Pair of Brits claim to be behind crop pattems came up with idea drunk in the pub Baseball had with string and two by four plank QUESTIONS 1 Should more money be spent on science 2 of money spent on science More money should be spent on science but speci ed sciences that benefit the economy and human race such as cures to pervasive diseases such as cancer or sustainability 2 What are the costsbenefits to society Costs money spent on failuresfraud less money deposited into other parts of society Benefits Improves our lifestyles helps us gain knowledge 2 Who should regulate science given cases of fraud Other scientists They regulate each other by trying to provedisprove each others theories 3 What is the current system People who give Grants govemment private agencies Peer review 4 Does the current system work Works on a whole because you cant create an organization or something to regulate all hypotheses 5 Should science always be relevant and should we only fund projects that would be directly applicable Science should always be relevant however many people feel that some sciences are more relevant than others Therefore more relevant sciences should be provided with more funding How do we agree as a whole which sciences are more relevant however 6 What factors drive scienti c fraud Success fame 7 What is the best prevention Peer review Ostracizing Lecture 2 Evolution What is Evolution A change through space and time Biological Evolution A genetically based change in a line of descent over time descent with modification Throughout populations individuals posses and show different forms of their traits The frequencies of these different forms of traits are relative to one another and can change or evolve over successive generations Orthogenesis The common belief of what evolution looks like a monkey slowly evolving stage by stage into a human Orthogenesis is an incorrect diagram of evolution The correct view would be Branching in that traits are varied and evolved This change is based on factors that cause certain traits to be modi ed and branch off of their original state Development of Evolutionary Thought The earliest roots of modem evolutionary theory begins with origin myths amp superstition to explain the natural world Roots of western philosophy Aristotle 3 50 BC created the scala naturae a hierarchy of life and organisms Stoic Philosophers I S C entruy AD Follower of Zeno humans free from passion Recognized fossils as evidence of past life that had been destroyed by catastrophes Rise of Rome and Christianity Life was believed to be a chain of being from lowest to highest forms each being was a separate link in the chain All links were believed to be designed amp forged at the same time at the center of creation and were immutable Albertus Magnus 1300 removed humans from the scale of nature Sir Thomas Aquinas 1300 AD Believed humans are divine Homunculus theory The soul is transferred at fertilization The Theory of Creationism God created the earth and all life forms on it Life was immutable and didn39t change The earth is young 600010000 years Religious idea Basis of christianity msic questions about life 1 Biogeography The examination of the global distribution of animals Observations Many plants and animals are unique to isolated places evolved separately from the base life form due to geographical isolation Certain species separated by great distances resemble one another but aren39t identical This makes sense as their differing outside factors would have caused them to evolve separately Questions How did so many species get from one point of creation to isolated places on earth Earth originally had only one continent Pangea Pangea split due to factors such as gravity and tectonic plates Animals were then carried on separate pieces of land and spread out across earth What did the similarities and differences among them mean The similarities means that originally these animals were the same or as similar as two individuals of the same population can be The differences mean that as theses animals were separated they were confronted with differing outside factors with which to adapt to This caused the animals all to evolve however due to the distance between them they evolved differently 2 Comparative Morphology The study of similarities and differences between major groups Observations human arms whale ippers bat wings etc differ in size shape and function but are all located on the similar part of the body Questions Why are some animals that are so different in some features so much alike in others Animals all have different niches and ways of living Therefore they have separate body parts and features to match their ways of living explaining differences Animals on a whole however have a lot of similarities in their basic living needs such as eating This explains why many features are very similar such as mouths in order to eat More basic All animals are made with aws Some parts of the body are purposeless 3 Geology Fossil remains of plants and animals Observations distinct layers of rock contained fossils Deep layers contained simple fossils and shallow layers contained similar but more complex fossils Questions What did this increasing complexity represent It represented the signs of change in animals over a period of time evolution Were these fossils layers separated in time As time progressed the earth formed more layers separating them Could these organisms be related Yes As the fossils are similar it shows that the fossils were based on the same basic animal however certain traits had branched off and allowed the animal to evolve Organisms could have been created in different spots The findings from Biogeography Comparative Morphology and Geology didn39t t with beliefs of creationism Novel Hypotheses 1 If dispersal of all species from a center of creation was not possible because of barriers Then species may have originated in more than one place 2 If organisms were not created in perfect states Then species may have been modified over time Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon early 170039s Life wasn39t immutable but changed by degeneration environment in uences modifications earth was old 70000 years He had hid his views in a 44volume natural history book series Erasmus Darwin late 170039s Competition plays a role in the formation of species not creation Animals change in response to changes in the environment outside factors Offspring inherit these changes life on earth could have descended from a common ancestor Traveled a lot and would see breeding Saw by the breeding of cattle that certain traits continue to occur Believed animals change based on factors and that these changes could be passed on James Hutton amp Charles Lyell geologists mid 180039s Theory of Uniforminitarianism Uniformity The idea that changes in the earth occurred slowly gradually and at uniform rates Earth was old 12 million years William Smith Paleontologist mid 190039s Layer of fossils in the cliffs of Dover great Britain Linked age of rocks to age of fossils gave an idea of species at certain time periods which allows people to decipher any signs of evolution Georges Cuvier anatomistbiologist mid 1800s Believed that species go extinct due to catastrophes By looking at fossils Theory of Catastophism Survivors not new species fossils represent species that were destroyed The opposite of Uniformitarianism The earth has been affected by short violent actions Jean Baptiste de Lamarck mid 180039s Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics traits Environmental pressures and internal needs bring about permanent changes in body form and function Behavioral changes modif1edtraitsphysiology and behavior could be passed on He believed that Giraffes could stretch their way from a short neck giraffe to a long neck giraffe Not true physical modifications hair dye circumcision etc not passed on through genes Cuvier and Lamarck fought about who39s ideologies were right Cuvier won due to social status and wealth Charles Darwin biologist mid 1800s 1825 attended University of Edinburgh studied medicine dropped out thought it barbaric Transferred to cambridge clergy and graduated in 1831 At 22 took a job as ships naturalist 5 years voyage 183136 on the HMS Beagle Survey of geography oceanography geology and biology Made 3 major findings 1 As the environment changes so does species composition 2 Fossils are related to organisms today but are also structurally different 3 Galapagos islands island animals were related to mainland species but locally different in form and function example Finches The Finches were geographically isolated and evolved separately than the other types of finches like the fossils so much similarity but so much difference Thomas Malthus 1798 Essay on the principle of population geometric growth of populations All populations have the capacity to produce more individuals than the environment can support Alfred Russel Wallace 1858 Independently wrote 2 page letter summarizing all of Darwin39s ideas Everything he saw and how to explain them sent them to Darwin gt Took Wallaces letter and his pamphlet and published both 2 Papers published 1858 Darwin and Wallace In the proceedings of the Linnaen society of london Darwin 1859 published book on the origin of species Basis for evolutionary biology Evolution happens via a branching method Theory of Natural Selection Nature selects the individuals that are most fit 5 basic principles 1 In all species there is an overproduction of progeny comes from malthus 2 There is a struggle for existence among individuals and species competition for resources 3 All species posses a large amount of variation in structures Darwin 4 The fittest individuals for a given environment survive 5 All species inherit the traits of their parents Variation in traits affects an individuals ability to secure resources and therefore survive and reproduce in particular environments Darwin didn39t understand the source of variation or how it was passed on Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics mid 1800s monk wellrenowned botanist Sperm and egg carry distinct units genes of information about heritable traits 2 unitsmale and female Found indirect but observable evidence of how transmit genes to offspring 1865 presented his ideas 1865 published 1884 died Provided the evidence to support the key premise of Natural selection how its passed on not where it came from Hugo Devries Theory of mutation mutare early 1900s Spontaneous mutation was the source of variation Inheritance of speci c traits in organisms comes in particles pangenes Watson amp Crick Establish general structure of DNA 1953 Double stranded right handed antiparallel exposed bases in grooves all variation of life on earth housed 1 simple structure of dna Neodarwinism 19401970 combination of Darwinian natural selection and basic genetics Stephen Gould and Niles Eldredge 1972 Theory of punctuated equilibrium Long periods of stability stasis punctuated by bursts of evolutionary change and diversi cation Modem Theory of Evolution 1 Synthesis of Neodarwinian ideas natural selection population biology amp punctuated equilibrium 2 Short bursts of evolution followed by long periods of slow gradual change 3 Modifications in descent can occur gradually rapidly or by a combination of both Evolution is the most powerful unifying principle in biology Explains why organisms are different from each other yet at the same time share many common characteristics Lecture 3 Adaptation and V2Li21tion The Evolutionary process Variation Natural selection Genetic Divergence Reproductive isolation Speciation quot39gtquot t ltures that chzglcterize a population 1 Morphological traits Form 2 Physiological traits Function 3 Behavioral traits behavior Individuals of a population vary in their traits Populations evolve not individuals Variation Cell the smallest unit that shows the properties of life 1 Fundamental unit of life 2 Have a plasma membrane cytoplasm DNA 3 Are small due to surface area to volume ratio limits Organisms Cell types 1 Prokaryotic most are unicellular no nucleus and no membrane bound organelles 2 Eukaryotic most are multicellular have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles Variation Eukaryotic cell types Nucleus Chromosome DNA and histone protein Ex Humans 46 chromosomes 23 pairs 100000 genes Somatic cells body cells 2 sets of chromosomes diploid Gametes sex cells egg or sperm 1 set of chromosomes haploid Typical life cycle Egg sperm gt fertilization fusion gt zygote mitosis gt differentiation gt adult organism gt Mitosis which leads to somatic cells diploid or Meiosis which leads to Gametes haploid DNA deoxyribonucleic acid double helix hydrogen bonded Nucleotide ribose sugar phosphate amp nitrogen containing base nitrogenous base adenine thymine cytosine guanine the sequence of bases along DNA is genetic info The sequence of bases varies among species and individuals Gene hereditary unit of DNA that codes for speci c traits lnforrnation about heritable traits occurs in genes and this information is transcribed and translated 1 Transcription process by which hRNA is assembled from nucleotides using the base sequence of a gene as a template occurs in the nucleus 2 Translation process by which a polypeptide chain is assembled from amino acids in the order specified by an mRNA occurs in the cytoplasm Section 0408 Evolution Vs Creationism Evolution all life on earth can be traced back to one single organism Creationism Faithreligious based theory Some higher power Intelligent design All life was designed as it exists on earth Can be adaptation within each species but all species made as they are now Intelligent design and creationism separate Theory of evolution has its origins in Westem philosophy Components to Darwin39s ideas Common descent gradualism earth is actually really old Natural selection What forms evolution Variation natural selection genetic divergence reproductive isolation Synthetic theory of Evolution unifying principle of biology Classical darwinism and moder evolution combined Evolution Inception of earth and life must have occurred billions of years ago Man and apes emerged from a common ancestor Life changes via adaptation Creationism Inception of earth and life may have been relatively recent Man and apes have separate ancestry Life is immutable State vs John Scopes Monkey trial Tennessee passed a law making it illegal to teach evolution American civil liberties union announced it would defend anyone who challenged the statute John Scopes volunteered for arrest to put Dayton Tennessee Monkey town on the map found guilty and ned 100 dollars In 2005 proposed including intelligent design in science curriculum EEMB 22 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Important Terms Neodarwinism Combination of Darwinian natural selection and basic genetics Normal Variation Quantitative and continuous ex Height and weight Polymorphic Variation discreet ex Eye color and blood groups Ecogeographic variation Variation along an ecological geographic gradient can occur as a cline ex Bird wing length Alleles Forms of Genetic Expression Fecundity Fertility Genome All the inheritable traits of an organism Gene Pool All the genes in a population Chromosomes A structure of DNA protein and RNA Encodes most or all of an organisms genetic information Meiosis Cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in Eukaryotes ex Humans Mitosis Process by which a cell duplicates into two identical sets of chromosomes the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells Only occurs in Eukaryotic cells Phylogeny Evolutionary development of a species Binomial Nomenclature Process by which an organism is named The first term identifying the genus to which it belongs the second term identifying the species itself Important people Aristotle 350 BC Created the Scala Naturae the hierarchy of life Stoic Philosophers 1st Cent AD Recognized fossils as evidence of past life that had been destroyed by catastrophes Albertus Magnus 1300 AD removed humans from the scale of nature Sir Thomas Aquinas 1300 AD Humans are divine George Louis Leclerc de Buffon early 1700s Life not immutable but changed by DEGENERATION The environment in uences modifications evolution Earth is actually old 70000 years Erasmus Darwin late 1700s Competition specifies the formation of species not creation Animals change based on the environment and pass these changes on to the next generation Believed life on earth could have descended from a common ancestor Iames Hutton amp Charles Lyell Geologists mid 1800s THEORY OF UNIFORMITARIANISM Changes in the earth occurred slowly Earth was even older than thought 12 million William smith Paleontologist mid 1800s Based on layer of fossils in the cliff s of Dover Great Britain linked age of rocks to age of fossils Georges Cuvier anatomistbiologist mid 1800s THEORY OF CATASTROPHISM Species go extinct due to sudden catastrophes lean Baptiste de Lamarck mid 1800s Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Environment and internal needs cause permanent changes Behavior changes can cause modified traits Charles Darwin biologist mid 1800s 3 major findings 1 As environment changes so does the species composition need to adapt 2 Fossils are related to organisms today but are also structurally different evolution 3 Galapagos Islands showed how isolated species are related to mainland species but have minor differences due to geographical barriers and reproductive isolation EXAMPLE FINCHES Thomas Malthus 1798 Wrote the Essay on the Principle of Population All populations have the capacity to reproduce unsustaibaly Alfred Russel Wallace 1858 Wrote a 2 page letter summarizing Darwin39s ideas 2 Papers published Darwin and Wallace in the proceedings of the Linaean Society ofLondon Darwin 1859 published book On the Origin of Species pressured by Wallace Summary of the Lectures thus far Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics mid 1800s Sperm and egg carry distinct genes containing information about heritable traits Found indirect but observable evidence on gene transmission to offsprings Provided the evidence to support the idea pf Natural Selection Hugo Devries Theory of mutation mutare early 1900s Variation caused by sporadic mutation Inheritance of specific traits comes in PANGENES Watson amp Crick Establish general structure of DNA Double stranded Stephen Gould and Niles Eldredge THEORY OF PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM Long periods of stability punctuated by bursts of change and diversification Evolution A change through Space and Time Biological Evolution Genetically based change in a line of descent over time Frequencies of different forms of traits can change over successive generations Orthogenesis Straight line evolution incorrect Branching Traits change and adjust off of one another Rise of Rome and Christianity gt A chain of being eah being a separate link in the chain All links were designed by God at the same time at the center of creation believed to be immutable Homunculus theory Soul transferred at fertilization Theory of Creationism God created earth and its life that was unchanging earth is young 6000 10000 years The Development of Evolutionary Thought 1 Biogeography Many Plants and animals are unique to ISOLATED PLACES and some species separated by great distances but still resemble each other Can only be explained that species originated in separate locations not one 2 Comparative Morphology study of similarities differences between major groups Ex Arms are pervasive amongst most species but look different suggests evolution due to separate needs of different species 3 Geology Fossil remains found in distinct layers of rock Complexity increased as the rocks became shallower Shows that evolution caused the more basic ancestral species became more complex and diverse throughout the generations weren39t made in perfect states but rather modified over time Theory of Natural Selection Nature selects the Individuals that are most fit 5 Basic Principles 1 In all species there is an overproduction of progeny There is a competition for resources All species vary in structures The fittest individuals for a given environment survive All species inherit the traits of their parents S r S Synthetic Theory Synthesis of Neodarwinian ideas population biology amp punctuated equilibrium Modification in descent can occur gradually rapidly or both The Evolutionary Process Variation Natural Selection Genetic divergence Reproductive Isolation Speciation VARIATION What characterizes a population Morphological traits form Physiological traits Function Behavioral traits Behavior Cell the smallest unit tat shows properties of life Has a plasma membrane cytoplasm and DNA Organisms have cell types Prokaryotic most unicellular no nucleaus and no membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic most multicellular have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles Contain Chromosomes DNA and Histone protein Humans have 46 chromosomes Somatic cells Body cells 2 sets of chromosomes DIPLOID Gametes sex cells egg or sperm 1 set of chromosomes APLOID Mitosis creates Somatic cells Meiosis creates Gametes DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid double helix hydrogen bonded Nucleotide ribose sugar phosphate and nitrogen containing base Nitrogenous base ADENINE THYMINE CYTOSINE GUANINE Sequence of bases along DNA genetic info varies by individual Gene Hereditary unit of DNA that codes for specific traits Info from genes Transcribed and translated Transcription RNA assembled from nucleotides using the base sequence of a gene as template occurs in the nucleus Translation Polypeptide chain assembled from amino acids in the order specified by an mRNA occurs in cytoplasm Allele 2 or more different molecular forms of a gene Expression Dominance 1 allele expressed over another recessive 1 allele not expressed over another Co dominant alleles expressed equally Zygosity Homozygous 2 alleles the same e rr or RR Heterozygous 2 alleles different ex rR Genetic Expression Dominant and recessive traits Genotype Individuals inherit different combinations of allelesl genetic expression Phenotype Individuals express different details of traits physical expression Gene Pool All the genes in a population pool of genetic resources Genome All the genes in a species Phenotypic Frequencies abundance of each phenotype in a population Mutation ultimate source of variation heritable changes in DNA that give rise to altered traits Only source of new alleles Mutant allelese may produce unexpected phenotypes Chromosomal Mutation Point Mutation Recombination Individuals inherit different combinations of alleles increasing variation Done by 1 Crossing over at meiosis similar chromosome pairs line up and can exchange genes 2Independent assortment at Meiosis mixes of maternal and paternal chromosomes into gametes 3Fertilization combines alleles from two parents Inbreeding Sexual reproduction between 2 genetically similar individuals Increase genetic load harmful genes decrease variety Crossbreeding Sexual reproduction between 2 genetically different individuals decreases genetic load increases variety Sexual Selection Non random mating Traits are chosen with respect to survival and reproduction ex male peacocks and their feathers Sexual Dimorphism caused by sexual selection in that male and females typically have distinct phenotypes Hybridization From of crossbreeding Sexual reproduction between 2 different species Typically the offspring is infertile Natural Selection Evolutionary Fitness Contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contribution of other individuals Relative Fitness The contribution of a genotype to the next generation compared to he contribution of alternative genotypes for the same locus Natural selection acts on PHENOTYPES Reproductive success is based on the ability to SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE Mean fitness of population The average reproductive success of members of a population Survival of the Fittest Most fit will pass on their genes with the greatest frequency Types of Natural Selection Stabilizing Selection Intermediate forms of traits favored and alleles that specify extreme forms are selected against reduces variation favors the survival and reproduction of the intermediate phenotype Individuals that cluster around the mean are well adapted and more able to survive example human birth weight Directional Selection Favors survival and reproduction of phenotypes at one extreme or the other of phenotypic distribution the range of phenotype will shift one direction or the other individuals that deviate from the average are favored and more likely to survive Pesticide Resistance an example of directional selection If resistance is heritable becomes more common in the next generation Chemicals agents of selection that favor the most resistant form Disruptive Selection Phenotypic characters at opposite extremes of character distribution are favored and intermediate forms are selected against Occurs in shifting environments Favors those on the opposite spectrum not those in between Example Black bellied seedcracker finches Some have small beaks allowing them to crack small seeds some have large beaks allowing them to crack large seeds but most have beaks in between making them unable to successfully crack either type of seeds Artificial Selection selection and breeding of individuals with desired traits by humans Artificial creations such as the plant Brassica Oleracea that can be modified to make kale cabbage brussel sprouts etc Genetic Divergence Gene ow Physical movement of alleles into and out of a population through immigration and emigration Tends to counter genetic difference Alleles are lost from a population via emigration and enter through immigration Genetic Drift The random change in allele frequencies over the generations brought about by chance Sampling Error The smaller the sample size the greater the chance of deviation from predicted results 2 situations that increase the impact of genetic drift The bottleneck effect A severe reduction in population size brought about by intense selection pressure or natural disaster In this case the original large population reduced drastically and with it the variety is decreased This small surviving population is then evolved and expanded over time creating a new population The Founders effect When a few individuals become isolated from a larger population Occurs when a few members migrate to a new habitat or members are for some reason isolated The now isolated gene pools evolve separately and may no longer represent the original population Genetic Divergence Any structural functional or behavioral difference that favors reproductive isolation is a by product of genetic change Genetic changes between populations can be countered by gene ow Barriers can prevent the exchange of genes and leads to evolutionary divergence between the populations Reproductive Isolation Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Any heritable feature of body form function or behavior that prevents interbreeding between one or more genetically divergent populations RIMs result as a by product of genetic divergence Types of Mechanisms Prezygotic before or during fertilization Postzygotic After fertilization PREZYGOTIC Ecological Isolation Isolation due to adaptation to different microclimates in the same habitat Geographic Isolation Isolated by distance or geographic barriers Don39t come in contact Distance or barrier relative to the size of the organism Temporal Isolation Isolated by reproductive events that occur at different times mating seasons etc don39t overlap Ethological Isolation Isolated by behaviors copulation proceeded by courtship displays reciprocity produces sexual stimulation Mechanical Isolation Isolated by incompatible reproductive part size or shape example wrong mating parts or the penis is not the right size or shape Gametic Isolation Gametes of different species are incompatible at the molecular level resulting in mortality GAMETIC WASTAGE minimum of sperm required per species to achieve fertilization POSTZYGOTIC ISOLATION Zygotic wastage Minimum number of zygotes required per species to achieve a viable adult Hybrid Sterility No viable sperm or egg example a mule Hybrid Breakdown Offspring fertile but their offspring s are sterile or have genetic abnormalities Speciation Biological Species concept 1 Species are groups of interbreeding natural population39s that are reproductively isolated from other such groups 2 Capacity to contribute to a shared gene pool is qualification for species membership 3 This concept doesn39t apply to asexually reproducing organisms such as bacteria Mechanisms of Speciation Speciation due to accumulation of genetic changes that promote significant differences between populations 1 speciation due to abrupt events 2 Speciation due to adaptation to different environments Allopatric Speciation physical barriers lead to reproductive isolation Leads to genetically different populations speciation is complete when individuals of 2 populations can no longer interbreed Adaptive Radiation Introduction to new environments ancestral species evolving into a wide array of descendent species that differ in morphology physiology and behavior Sympatric Speciation A Species may form within the home range of an existing species in the absence of physical barriers polyploidy adaptation sexual selection 1 Polyploidy During cell divisions an accident can result in extra sets of chromosomes immediate reproduction isolation 2 Parapatry adaptation to local environments and sexual selection promote speciation Macroevolutionary Changes Speciation can result from very small differences Species diverge and speciate repeatedly causing differences to gradually become more obvious speciation constitutes the beginnings of macroevolutionary change EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION 1 Natural Selection example the Pepper moth which demonstrates directional selection and evolution During the Industrial revolution they were mostly black afterwards when the environment became cleaner they were mostly white 2 Artificial Selection Selective breeding of animals and plants mimics the natural act of evolution 3 Fossil Records physical evidence of past life Oldest sediments contain the oldest fossils Transitional forms such as horses that demonstrate an obvious transition from small to large 4 Comparative anatomy Homologous structures similar origins but different functions morphological divergence the modification of the same body part in different ways in different lines of descent from a common ancestor such as arms and wings 5 Embryology Shows previous evolutionary development and similarity between organisms the more similar the embryonic development the more similar the organism 6 Biogeography Evolution based on organisms distribution on earth example the Emu in Australia and the Ostrich in Africa Plate tectonics Causes continental drift causing land to move and the environment to change 7 Biochemical and Molecular Biology Can identify similarities and differences among species at the molecular level DNA hybridization Split DNA then combine and then split again the harder it is to break the molecular bonds the more closely related the 2 species are Molecular Clock neutral accumulation of mutations in DNA Helps data divergence from a common ancestor Descent with modification such as humans shows that evolution is real Readings Animals Multicelled heterotrophs that take food into their body where they digest it and absorb the released nutrients Colonial Theory of animal origins Animals evolved from a heterotrophic protist that formed colonies at first all cells in colony similar each could survive reproduce on its own Later mutations made cells that specialized in some tasks but not all Made them more efficient Colonies form when a cell undergoes mitosis descendent cells stay together Cells of a choano agellate colony are like the cells of an animal body genetically identical Movement of land masses cut off gene ow among populations Encouraged speciation Species interactions may have also encourage evolutionary innovations MAJOR ANIMAL GROUPS AND EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS 1 Tissue a Consists of one or more types of cells that are organized in a specific pattern and can carry out a certain task b Evolution of a three layer embryo gt increase in structural complexity 2 Radical Symmetry a Body parts repeated around a central axis b Radial animals have no front or back end 3 Bilateral symmetry a Have a right and left half and body parts are mirrored b Have a distinctive head end with concentration of nerve cells 4 Proto 15 Stoma opening a In deuterostomes the second opening becomes the mouth 5 Gastrovascular cavity saclike gut a Saclike gut Cnidarians and atworms use to digest food 6 Complete Digestive tract tubular gut a Opening at either end typically in Bilateral animals Of about 2 million animals only 50000 vertebrates Coelom Body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from Mesoderm INTRODUCING THE CHORDATES Chordates Defined by 4 traits 1 NOTOCHORDS a rod of still exible connective tissue extendes body length provides support 2 DORSAL Hollow nerve cord parallels the notochord 3 GILL SLITS open across the wall of the pharynx 4 MUSCULAR TAIL Extends beyond the anus Two groups of invertebrate chordates Tunicates Adult only retains the Pharynx with gill slits carbohydraterich secretion encloses the body Lancelets Fishlike shape 37 cm retain all chordate traits dorsal nerve cord extends into head wher single eyespot detects light no brain or sensory organs Tunicates more closely related to vertebrates Vertebrates third major chordate subgroup All have a distinct head with a brain Most have a pair of eyes closed circulatory system with a single heart Paired organs KIDNEYS filter the blood adjust volume amp solute composition eliminate wastes Digestive system complete Vertebral Column Back bone aws important evolved by expansion of bony parts that structurally supported the gill slits of early jawless fishes Lung saclike organ inside which blood exchanges gases with the air Tetrapods Vertebrate with four limbs Amniotes reptiles birds mammals most successful tetrapods on land earliest chordates invertebrates aws lungs limbs and waterproof eggs key innovations that led to adaptive radiation of vertebrates 1st in sea then on land HUMAN EVOLUTION Primates An order of placental mammals include apes humans etc 1 evolved in tropical rainforests many traits evolved to adapt to life among branches Have excellent depth perception Large brain for body size Vision amp information enhanced smell reduced Most spend life in a social group Females usually only give birth to one or two young at a time Extended period of care after birth OLDES EXISTING PRIMATE LINEAGES Lemurs Tarsiers Anthropoids Include monkeys apes humans Mostly Diturnal and have color vision Long tail for balance many species have prehensile tails to grasp things Old world monkeys Africa Middle Easy Asia New world Monkeys longer nose close nostrils Tailless nonhuman primates commonly called apes GIBBONS small apes in southeast Asian forests Early Bipedal Species Hominins humans and their closest extinct relatives Bipedalism habitual upright walking Australopiths hominins that lived in Africa from ca 412 million years ago Include Australopothicus afarensis Lucy looked like a chimpanzee and a human Humans member of the genus Homo Appeared in Africa more than 2 million years ago Most ancient species assigned to the genus is HOMO HABILIS Somewhat larger brain and smaller face than australopiths HOMO ERECTUS appears in fossil ca 18 million years ago 195000 years ago earliest evidence of HOMO SAPIENS found We have a higher rounder skull larger brain atter face smaller jawbones and teeth compare to H erectus Gene ow among populations maintained the species through the transition to fully modern humans modern humans living in N America by ca 14000 years ago HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS our closest extinct relatives our lineages diverged 500000 years ago both trace back to H erectus modern humans evolved in Africa and then migrated worldwide Plant traits and Evolution Plants Land dwelling multicelled photosynthetic eukaryotes evolved from a lineage of freshwater green algae charophyte algae Multicelled embryo develops within nourished by tissues of parental plant what sets pants apart from algae Life Cycles Animal life cycle multicelled diploid individual produces haploid cells eggs or sperm Combine to produce a new diploid individual Plants 2 multicelled stages in life cycle Diploid generation SPOROPHYTE produces spores by meiosis Plat spore nonmotile cell that undergoes mitosis and develops into multicelled haploid generation GAMETOPHYTE produces gametes by mitosis Gametes unite at fertilization to form a zygote That develops into a new sporophyte BYROPHYTES Largerlong lived member of an early evolving plant lineage Doesn t have vascular tissue example moss Most plants have a waxy Cuticle secreted layer that lessens evaporative water loss from the body surface STOMATA adjustable pores extended across the cuticle pores either open or close to allow gas exchange or conserve water XYLEM vascular tissue that carries water and mineral ions PHLOEM vascular tissue that distributes the sugars produced by photosynthetic cells VASCULAR PLANTS plants that have xylem and phloem LIGIN stiffens walls of xylem POLLEN GRAIN walled immature male gametophyte wind carries pollen grains to female gametophyte SEED consists of an embryo sporophyte and food to support it with protective coat Fungal Traits and Diversity Fugi lineage of eukaryotes more related to animals than plants FUNGI spre producing heterotrophs with cell walls made of chitin polysaccharide Obtain nutrients by extracellular digestion and absorption secretes digestive enzymes YEASTS single celled fungi MYCELIUM mass of threadlike filaments hyphae that make up the body of a multicelled fungus HYPHA single filament in a fungal mycelium roughly 56000 species named DIKARYOTIC having two nuclei multicelled club fungi spend most of their life as dikaryotic mycelium Fusion of haploid nuclei inside cells at the edges of the gills forms diploid zygotes Each one undergoes meiosis producing haploid spores After spore germinates repeated mitotic divisions give rise to a new haploid mycelium MYCORRIHIZA partnership between soil fungi and roots LICHENS composite organisms consisting of a fungus and a single celled photosynthetic species COLLENCHYMA simple plant tissues composed of living cells with unevenly thickened walls provides exible support DERMAL TISSUES tissues that cover and protect the plant body EPIDERMIS outermost tissue layer of a young plant PARENCHYMA simple plant tissue that consists of living parenchyma cells makes up most of a plant39s internal parts Sclerenchyma simple plant tissue that is dead at maturity its lignin reinforced cell walls structurally support plant parts COMPANION CELL In phloem parenchyma cell that loads sugars into sieve tubes COTYLEDON Seed leaf part of a owering plant embryo GROUND TISSUE Tissue that makes up the bulk of the plant body all plant tissue other than dermal and vascular tissue PHLOEM complex vascular tissue of plants distributes sugars through its sieve tubes VASCULAR TISSUES Tissues that distribute water and nutrients through a plant body XYLEM complex vascular tissue of plants its tracheids and vessel members distribute water and mineral ions Names of groups refer to the number of seed leaves COTYLEDONS in their embryos ground tissues make up most of a plant Vascualr tissues thread through ground tissue distribute water and solutes Dermal tissue covers and protects plant surfaces Eudicots and monocots have the same types of tissues but differ somewhat in their pattern of tissue organization New shoots develop at nodes region of the stem where leaves form Outermost layer of a root is a sheet of epidermis ROOT HAIRS collect more nutrients and water Outer boundary of the vascular cylinder sheet of endodermis Lower surface usually has more stomata Bulk of leaf consists of mesophyll photosynthetic parenchyma Elongated cells of palisade mesophyll lie just beneath the upper epidermis Cell of spongy mesophyll are more rounded than those of palisade mesophyll Have larger air spaces between them Leaf veins vascular bundles strengthened with fibers GUARD CELL one of a pair of cells that define a stoma across the epidermis of a leaf or stem COHESION TENSION THEORY water in xylem pulled upward by air s drying power creates a continuous negative pressure called tension the tension extends from leaves at tips of shoots to roots TRANSLOCATION movement of organic molecules through phloem PRESSURE FLOW THEORY how osmotic pressure pushes sugar rich uid inside a sieve tube from source to sink A Burning Concern Body 95 carbon by weight Mainly come from plants PHOTOSYNTHESIS metabolic pathway in which sunlight energy harnessed to build glucose molecules from CO2 and Water Capturing Rainbows Energy ow begins when photosynthesizers intercept sunlight Plants convert light energy into chemical energy WAVELENGTH distance between the crests of two successive waves of light measured in nanometers visible light between 380 and 750 nm Photosynthesizers use pigments to capture visible light PIGMENT an organic molecule that selectively absorbs light of certain wavelengths whats not absorbed is reflected What is reflected gives the pigment its characteristic color CHLOROPHYLL A main photosynthetic pigment in plants most leaves green many plants change color during autumn because they stop making pigments in preparation for a period of dormancy shorter the wavelength greater the energy Storing energy in sugar STROMA cytoplasm like uid between the thylakoid membrane and the 2 outer membranes of a chloroplast THYLAKOID MEMBRANE A chloroplast s highly folded inner membrane system forms a continuous compartment in the stroma PHOTOSYNTHESIS METABOLIC PATHWAY series of many reactions comprised of two reactions Lightdependent reactions When a photosystem absorbs energy Ejects electrons Oxygen atoms combine and diffuse out of the cell as Oxygen gas Electrons ejected from the photosystem pass from one molecule of the electron transfer chain to the next releasing energy at each step molecules of the chain use the released energy to transport hydrogen ions across the membrane from the stroma into the thylakoid compartment ow of electrons sets up and maintains a hydrogen ion gradient across the thylakoid membrane ELECTRON TRANSFER PHOSPHORYLATION process in which electron ow through electron transfer chains sets up a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP formation Basically chlorophylls and other pigments in the thylakoid membrane transfer the energy of light to photosynthesis the ow of electrons through the transfer chains sets up hydrogen ion gradients that drive ATP formation Oxygen released electrons end up in NADPH The lightindependent reactions CALVIN BENSON CYCLE Light independent reactions of photosynthesis cyclic carbon fixing pathway that forms sugars from CO2 use carbon atoms from CO2 to make glucose CARBON FIXATION Process by which carbon from an inorganic source such as carbon dioxide gets incorporated into an organic molecule most glucose converted at once to sucrose or starch when glucose needed in other parts of the plant starch broken down to its glucose monomers and exported from the cell C3 PLANT only uses calvin benson cycle to fix carbon C4 PLANTS type of plant that minimizes photorespiration by fixing carbon twice in two cell types CAM PLANTS type of plant that minimizes photorespiration by fixing carbon twice at different times of day Basically ATP ad NADPH that formed in light dependent reactions drive the synthesis of glucose from CO2 Stomata close to conserve water when conditions hot and dry oxygen then builds up in plants tissues In C3 plants this interferes with carbon fixation thus slowing sugar production Additional carbon fixing pathways allow C4 and CAM plants to maintain high sugar production on hot and dry days Photosynthesis and Aerobic Respiration A global connection 1St photosynthetic cells evolved ca 32 billion years ago probably in shallow ocean waters AEROBIC Involving oxygen or occurring in it presence AEROBIC RESPIRATION Oxygen requiring metabolic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates to produce ATP ANAEROBIC Occurring in the absence of oxygen Photosynthesizers capture energy from the sun stored in the form of carbohydrates GLYCOLOSIS set of reactions in which glucose is broken down to two pyruvate for a net yield of two ATP KREBS CYCLE cyclic pathway that helps break down pyruvate to carbon dioxide during aerobic respiration Eukaryotic cells convert chemical energy of carbohydrates to the chemical energy of ATP by the oxygen requiring pathway of aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration begins in cytoplasm with glycolysis and ends in the mitochondrion with electron transfer phosphorylation A typical net yield of aerobic respiration is 36 ATP per glucose CO2 and H20 form ALCOHOLOC FERMENTATION anaerobic carbohydrates breakdown pathway that produces ATP CO2 and ethanol FERMENTATION An aerobic pathway by which cells harvest energy from carbohydrates LACTATE FERMENTATION Anaerobic carbohydrate breakdown pathway that produces ATP and lactate Complex carbs fats and proteins can be broken down to yield ATP 1 the digestive system and then individual cells convert molecules in food into intermediates of glycolysis or the Krebs cycle Carbon Cycle 2nd most abundant substance in living organisms CARBON CYCLE movement of carbon among rocks water atmosphere and living organisms NITROGENT CYCLE movement of nitrogen among the atmosphere soil and water and into and out of food webs NITROGEN FIXATION conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia ACID RAIN rain containing sulfuric and or nitric acid forms when pollutants mix with water vapor in the atmosphere DESERTIFICATION conversion of grassland or woodlands to desertlike conditions OZONE LAYER region of upper atmosphere with a high ozone concentration acts as a sunscreen against UV radiation Plant reproduction ANTHER part of the stamen that produces pollen CARPEL oral reproductive organ that consists of an ovary stigma and often a style OVARY In owering plants the enlarged bas of a carpel inside which one or more ovules form OVULE of a seed bearing plant a structure inside an ovary which a haploid female gametophyte forms POLLEN GRAIN immature male gametophyte of a seed plant POLLINATOR an organism that moves pollen from one plant to another STAMEN oral reproductive organ that consists of an anther and often a filament STIGMA upper part of a carpel adapted to receive pollen NECTAR Sweet uid exuded by some owers attracts animal pollinators POLLINATION VECTOR any agent that moves pollen grains from one plant to another eg the wind or a bee DORMANCY Period of temporarily suspended metabolism DOUBLE FERTILIZATION mode of fertilization in owering plants in which one sperm cell fuses with the egg and a second sperm cell fuses with the endosperm mother cell ENDOSPERM Nutritive tissue in the seeds of owering plants GERMINATE to resume metabolic activity after dormancy FRUIT mature ovary of a owering plant often with accessory parts encloses a seed or seeds SEED Embryo sporophyte of a seed plant packaged with nutritive tissue inside a protective coat 1525 billion tons of methane produced by emitted gasses How do animals communicate morphologically physiologically chemically behaviorally Purposes Social Sexual Defensive Chemical communication Internal maintains homeostasis Nervous system neuron cell that relays electrical signal 3 classes 1 sensory neurons detect stimuli 2 Motor neurons control muscles and glands 3 Interneurons integrate signals from sensory to motor neurons Endocrine system hormones signaling molecules 2 types 1 steroid hormones lipids that can diffuse through cell membranes ex Testosterone and estrogen 2 Nonsteroid hormones derived from amino acids chemical communication between species Physiological adaptation gas diffuses faster than liquid vomeronasal organ nose PHEROMONES Signaling molecules that in uences behavior of other organisms of the same species based on function Lecture 190514 Tried to genetically modify European bees with African bees to get more honey Didn39t work know we have aggressive bees that look like European bees spreading no way to tell the difference Simple Diffusion air and water dependent Doesn39t travel well over long distances slow detected by other animals Lecture 2 1514 ETHOLOGY study of animal behavior BEHAVIOR The observable response of organisms to external or internal stimuli Some behaviors can be modified once you know what the stimuli is some cant example of instinctive behavior babies sucking 7U3 W W QJUt rs COL l1 CJ 39 M Cofbon Cq CU F ltcx vHOr via smm wltis 53zquot ltlt n 0 IWV 5 L NW WW3 C0 H 7Ooquotquot393 C01 33 ltNF3 lt6 gcxx A at diva f onm vvc M3 Q 5 G 3 OCLVquot 5 quot Q93 Raf C mean 3 ES 2 ugt r LuSrlt2 vfo 39 V uvquotQ hf v amp39x was L1 N Cx SvVS 39D b 39 W M Ma A 3 539Cr2 2 UQ39vltca C0rc9 u o 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Xvquotm O0 rreVampirluovrgtmcl1c st g SW53 0 0lvu as s ctam V 7393 CM 5quot 4 V 399 vvoA z H 393 reJaeampvltgt2g 3 o gtDgtlt MXEL7 M scxmm bbpmmq W Wmma V u d 1 altO f VQ5 m oeduw WC owl PSC5mc t 3 Qw u39ecihL Uquotmk2gtjVmwsoac 392 Mu1 be Mxuspoam 103 JZIuwwn wean m gt2c2 A W Euoma 3 SW 533mm GEES 5 E zltgtJLuamp W 0ltLYuv A 161 A Honkin Mess POPULATION a group of organisms of the same species who live in a specific location and breed with one another more often than they breed with members of other populations ECOLOGY study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their physical environment DEMOGRAPHICS Vita statistics that describe the population POPULATION SIZE the number of individuals in a population POPULATION DENSITY number of individuals in some specified area or volume of a habitat POPULATION DISTRIBUTION location of individuals relative to one another competition can produce a near uniform distribution Ex Creosote bushes have competition for water Secrete allelopaths so that other organisms don39t grow near them Random population distribution rare random sampling to measure a population EXPONENTIAL GROWTH birth rate exceeds death rate PER CAPITA GROWTH RATE Per capita birth rate Per capita death rate BIOTIC POTENTIAL Maximum possible population growth under optimal conditions EXPONENTIAL MODEL OF POPULATION GROWTH model for population growth when resources are unlimited The per capita growth rate remains constant as population size increases PER CAPITA GROWTH RATE The number of individuals added during some interval divided by the initial population size I curve exponential growth LOGISTIC MODEL OF POPULATION GROWTH Model fro growth ofa population limited by density dependent factors numbers increase exponentially at first then the growth rate slows and population size levels off at carrying capacity DENSITY DEPENDENT LIMITING FACTOR factor whose negative effect on growth is felt most in dense populations for example infectious disease or competition for food DENSITY INDEPENDENT LIMITING FACTOR factor that limits growth in populations regardless of their density for example a natural disaster or harsh weather CARRYING CAPACITY Maximum number of individuals of a species that a specific environment can sustain Fighting the Foreign Ants COMMUNITY All populations of all species in some area SPECIES DIVERSITY Number of species and their relative abundance a pond with 5 species occurring in ca equal numbers has a higher species evenness Thus a higher species diversity HABITAT The type of place in which a species lives NICHE The role of a species in its community SYMBIOSIS one species lives on or inside another in a commensal mutualistic or parasitic relationship COEVOLUTION Ioint evolution of 2 closely interacting species each species is a selective agent that shifts the range of variation in the other COMMENSALISM Species interaction that benefits one species and neither helps nor harms the other MUATUALISM Species interaction that benefits both species INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION Two species compete for a limited resource and bother are harmed by the interaction COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION When two species compete for a limiting resource one drives the other to local extinction RESOURCE PARTITIONING Use of different portions of a limited resource allows species with similar needs to coexist PREDATION One Species the predator captures kills and feeds on another its prey WARNING COLORATION Distinctive color or pattern that makes a well defined prey species easy to recognize MIMICRY Two or more species come to resemble one another CAMOUFLAUGE Body shape pattern or behavior that helps a plant or animal blend into is surroundings HERBIVORY An animal feeds on a plant which may or may not die as a result BROOD PARASITES an animal that tricks another species into raising its young for example a cowbird PARASITOIDS An insect that lays eggs in another insect and whose young devour their host from the inside ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSIONA gradual change in a community in which one array of species replaces another PRIMARY SUCCESSION Ecological succession occurs in an area where there was previously no soil PIONEER SPECIES Species that can colonize a new habitat SECONDARY SUCCESSION Ecological succession occurs in an area where a community previously existed and soil remains KEYSTONE SPECIES A species that has a disproportionately large effect on community structure EXOTIC SPECIES A species that has been introduced to a new habitat and become established there ECOSYSTEM A community and its environment PRODUCERS Organisms that capture energy and make their own food from inorganic materials in the environment DETRITIVORES Consumers that feed on small bits of organic material detritus DECOMPOSERS Consumers that feed on remains and break them into their inorganic building blocks TROPHIC LEVELS Position of an organism in a food chain FOOD CHAIN Sequence of steps by which energy moves from one trophic level to the next FOOD WEB System of cross connecting food chains CONSUMERS Organisms that eat organisms or their remains PRIMARY PRODUCTION The energy captured by an ecosystems producers ENERGY PYRAMID Diagram that illustrates the energy ow in an ecosystem Ecology BIOSPHERE Sum of all places where we find life on Earth CLIMATE Average weather conditions in a region over a long time period RAIN SHADOW Dry region on the downwind side of a coastal mountain range BIOME Any of Earth39s major land ecosystems characterized by climate and main vegetation and found in several regions BOREAL FOREST Biome dominated by conifers that can withstand the cold winters at high northern latitudes TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST Biome dominated by broadleaf trees that grow in warm summers then drop their leaves and go dormant during cold winters TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Multilayered forest that occurs where warm temperatures and continual rains allow plant growth year round Most productive and species rich biome CHAPARRAL Biome with cool wet winters hot dry summers dominant plants are shrubs with small leathery leaves DESERT Biome with little precipitation its perennial plants are adapted to withstand drought PERMAFROST Layer of permanently frozen soil in he Arctic PRAIRIE Temperate grassland biome of North America Its grasses and other plants are adapted to recover after grazing and the occasional fire SAVANNA Tropical biome dominated by grasses and other plants adapted to grazing as well as a scattering of shrubs TUNDRA Northernmost biome dominated by low plants that grow over a layer of permafrost CORAL REEF In tropical sunlit seas a formation composed of secretions of coral polyps that serves as home to many other species ESTUARY A highly productive ecosystem where nutrient rich water from a river mixes with seawater HYDROTHERMAL VENT Place where hot mineral rich water streams out from an underwater opening in Earth39s crust SEAMOUNT an undersea mountain ENDANGERED SPECIES A species that faces extinction in all or part of its range ENDEMIC SPECIES A species that evolved in one place and is found nowhere else THREATENED SPECIES A species likely to become endangered in the near future ACID RAIN Rain containing sulfuric and or nitric acidforms when pollutants mix with water vapor in the atmosphere BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION A chemical pollutant becomes increasingly concentrated as it moves through a food chain DEFORESTATION Removal of all trees from a forested area DESERTIFICATION conversion of grassland or woodlands to desertlike conditions OZONE LAYER Region of upper atmosphere with a high ozone concentration acts as a sunscreen against UV radiation POLLUTANT a natural or man made substance that is release into the environment in greater than natural amounts and that damages the health or organisms BIODIVERSITY of a region the genetic diversity within its species variety of species and variety of ecosystems CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Field of applied biology that surveys biodiversity and seeks ways to maintain and use it ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION Actively altering an area in an effort to restore or create a functional ecosystem INDICATOR SPECIES A species that is particularly sensitive to environmental changes and can be monitored to assess whether an ecosystem is threatened AGE STRUCTURE Of a population distribution of individuals among various age groups TOTAL FERTILITY RATE Average number of children born to females of a population over the course of their lifetimes DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL model describing the changes in human birth and death rates that occur as a region becomes industrialized ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT area of earth39s surface required to sustainably support a particular level of development and consumption
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